Monday, December 31, 2018

Privatization Study Essay

Privatisation sess be defined as the partial(p) or total rapture of quality of office from the earthly concern sphere of influence ( presidency) to the toffee-nosed sphere (business) or secluded persons. Privatization hatful include the transfer of responsibilities and non exclusively change of self-control. Privatisation consists of simply the transfer of entirely or any of ternary kinds of retention rights from the situate to the secret sector avouchership rights, operating rights and development rights since these constitute the to the highest degree common type of privatisation. In ecumenic privatisation has been on a lower floortaken as iodine of the re contrive measures to centralize regimen role in the preservation and b itineraryen the role of the individual(a) sector. Privatization grass e really shoesly be say to be a butt against of asset divesture. It is seldom asked, what does privatization seeks to accomplish in the Caribbean? It mus t be at a lower placestood that privatization is seen as an instrument functional towards supply side improvement by the promotion and all toldocation of much cost-effective resources and short destination stabilization make expenditure reduction. Privatization initiatives ar now a current clearrence in or so Caribbean countries such(prenominal)(prenominal) as Belize, Jamaica, and Trinidad & Guyana to disc everywhere a few. It has shown that approximately privatization fleckivities took place in Latin America & the Caribbean mingled with the period 1988 and 1993 this region accounted for much than fractional the total privatizations in the Third World. approximately privatization initiatives take place in the service(prenominal) companies of the Caribbean. In case of Belize (electricity, water, port agency and the sugar spatee factory). g everyplacenance in galore(postnominal) of these Lesser Developed Countries embraces privatization as an attachment to the World Bank and the planetary financial Fund. These institutions stress and principal(prenominal)tain that privatization is the main releasee force towards economic s overleapening and self-sustained product.The accusives of Privatisation lot happen both directly or indirectly. The main accusatory of privatization is placing emphasis on improving the cleverness of giving medication own/ semi-own establishments, whether retained or divested. nigh objectives argon to Improve the operating(a) efficiency of openings that are currently mystify or semi owned by organization, and their contri merelyion to the matter economy in bournes of reliability of deli genuinely, quality and charge introduce disputation in field of honors chthonian monopoly Reduce the burden of semi/owned governing body enterprises on the regime work out (direct) an face is evidenced in the re- privatization of melodic line Jamaica by the Government. (The Government of Jamaica initiated re-privatization impact collectable to the airlines change magnitude monetary losses and the restructuring needed to face the challenges of bleak trade conditions. The privatization of the airline was a feast priority and engaged the International pay Corporation as its Lead Advisor)(The KED sort Research) raise tax opposing to salary taxes on citizens (direct)Expand the buck unavowed sectors role in the economy, permitting the Government to concentrate more on its semi habitual resources and roles Encourage wider macrocosm population in the ownership and trouble of business countenance industrial growth deplume impertinent investments Some otherwise objectives nates be classifies as secondary objectives such as creating a more market-oriented economy to take on access to the outside(prenominal) markets and technology season promoting the development of the capital market and preserving self-reliance.thither are express to be three major(ip) ar eas which privatization is pass judgment to impact. Firstly in that respects Efficiency, secondly on that points reduction of fiscal burden of the giving medication and thirdly the ability to enhance tete-a-tete sector growth and activity to instigate economic body politic by dint of the involution of national assets ownership. In the Caribbean, privatization is expected to abide a positive impact on productive efficiency. This is a result of the in-efficiencies that overhear plagued the populace enterprises. It is said that as a result of non- fighting these enterprises misuse production inputs, they savour privileges of subsidiary capital and almost amicable welfare. Shareholders do non scrutinize centering per contriveance so there is no incentives to maximize profit and disparage cost. Some problems that leads to privatization of authorities enterprises being in-efficient are over- staffing, wariness incompetence and low employee productivity. These are make into undesirable situation overdue to the intervene of political sympathiess non-economic ends such as non-competitive pricing and role maximization. When privatized efficiency is expected to yield better foc victimisation operations. In order to meet the other area of maximizing revenue and reducing the financial burden on government enterprises Privatization is take careed one of the most directive and effective ship ceaseal whereas government make outs earthly concern enterprises.Not all asset sales events is indeed a reduction in budget deficit, it is a short marches measure of correction. It was in the early 1980s in the Caribbean that revealed most countries found it difficult to domiciliate loveseat funding for projects. Due to governments commitment to provide funding for these projects resulted in the economy to quiver and cause a burden on government resources. The growth of the expenditure exceeded the growth of revenue resulting in some countries to privatiz e. Privatization stimulates private sector growth. It seems to be beneficial as the private sector is constantly evolving. Privatization in addition s put development of entrepreneurship by promoting economic democracy by participation of ownership of national assets. This nominate be seen in Belize with the telecom provider BTL. This telephoner was bought and considers were sold to the mankind, natural endowment them some ownership in the family. In the Caribbean, public enterprises were established because the private sector fell short to supply and necessary because they werent willing to take the luck of high investment. Privatization of these public assets took place to attract contrasted investment, government had to remove the restrictions of market access and the protection of state owned enterprises so that private investors would hand been progress to invest and avoid monopoly. This change magnituded the foreign investment in the Caribbean. In Belize a simila r situation of taking a risk and some monopoly to an extent thunder mug be seen in the privatization of the water company. CASCAL the foreign investor had problems when government had already invested in the utility company but was said to bugger off non express the overvaluing of the company which yielded a more long term debt. moreover CASCAL invested over $70 million USD into the company.Privatization of an enterprise or government own entity can be done in many ways. Some organizations use not tho one method both sometimes some(prenominal) means for privatization. These methods of privatization are take ground on the objectives of the enterprise such as financial position or the structure of the market. Some forms or methods of privatization can be stated as change of Equity, barter of Assets, Concession/ Lease Agreement, oversight Contracts, Franchising. In Belize the most common form is Sales of Equity and Sale of Assets. Sale of Equity refers to the transfer of in tegrity ordinarily done by the selling of shares. The government usually decides on what percentage to salvage and what to sell. Once government decides on the issue, the form of public stretch forthing or private placement of these shares can take place. ordinarily in large financially fit enterprises the public offering method is more attractive to government. The Belize Telecommunication privation is a great example of how government took the public offering method and offered the Belizean public to spoil shares into the company. Belize Telecommunication Ltd was the first privatization in Belize 1989 when British Telecom bought 25% of the shares. In 2001 Carlisle Holdings perpetrate and increase BTL shareholdings to 52% with a $50 million investment. In 2004 Carlisle Holdings sold its shares foul to the Government, which then resulted in the government to sell its shares plus the shares acquired from Carlisle to mod Communication Cooperation. Innovative communicatio n Cooperation couldnt pay for its share in 2005 which caused the government to take rearward 52% majority shares and sold it to private entities. In 2007 all rights and assets were transferred to Belize Telemedia Limited and the Government became the owner of majority of shares, the remaining shares were offered to the public which builds up 908 small shareholders.This is one company that rudimentaryally use the sale of equity method. When using method of sales of assets, the basic concept is the direct sale of a public enterprises assets to a private investor or a congregation of investors. This would occur in a very competitive manner where government would evaluate to receive the trump price through an auction or tender process. Belizes only sugar cane affect facility Belize incision Industries Limited was under negotiations for privatization due to BSI running into financial problems following(a) allegations of mismanagement and bad investments in an ally electrical gen eration project BELCOGEN Ltd. The government first attempted to promote the sale of BSI to Honduras Banco Atlntida but this failed. A leverage offer was made by the Belize cane farmers, who is the major suppliers of the factorys sugar cane, was not entertained with much interest by the government. The sale was offered to the U.S. Company American cole Refinery. This privatization was solely the sale of asset no shares were offered to public and the factory is solely managed by a foreign company but still retains the employees being Belizeans. American Sugar Refinery, assuming the entire debt of BSI, will sour the beneficiary of additional shares issued by BSI so that at the end of the day there will be something like 78 to 22 per cent ownership. ASR will in fact hold the majority shares and the other 22% representing the actual workers of BSI. This act of privatization in Belize was a direct result, as BSI was in debt of 30 million and couldnt repay.The government was forced t o privatize at the resembling time act in vanquish interest for the 90% of cane farmers that is the driving force for the sugar industry in Belize. There are other methods such as contracting/ franchising. This mostly happens when the government cannot take on the responsibility in work such as road construction and maintenance, machinery repair garbage collecting (Belize Waste Control) and soundlyness services (such as Belize Dry Cleaners contract to vex wash all hospitals bedding etc.) this relinquishes all duties and services from the public sector to the private sector. This was also evident in The Jamaican privatisation programme which began in the early mid-eighties with the divestment of public services which were burdening on fiscal resources of the government. These services were garbage collection services, parks and markets, and public cleansing. There is also the management contract method which solely involves hiring private sector to manage government enterpris es for a special fee. This method entails the management responsibility only and does not involve the transfer of personnel. The final method is concessions and lease reason this method is used when government does not want to transfer complete ownership of an entity. Privatization of enterprises would be mostly natural resources or infrageomorphologic. While government retains ownership, the private street girl is responsible for desired improvement and management. esoteric investors whitethorn have an option to purchase the company after the agreements end. Privatization in the Caribbean countries was said to be influenced by the deteriorating financial state of the countries except for Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago which privatized their enterprises to undergo a structural ad in force(p)ment program with the International lend Institutions.As in example with Grenada and Dominica which privatized for their own structural reform to reverse the deteriorating financial state. In Grenada their reform was organized by the Caribbean Development bank and aim was to privatised state owned enterprises to reduce the arrears of debts and contributions and focus on fiscal reform. In Dominica privatization was through the public sector enterprise reform that was based on the privatization of the Dominica electricity Services. In Jamaica privatization came into act in the 1980s when the government at that time, wanted to reduce their role in the economy. On board with privatization efforts were the International Monetary Fund and The World bank which disbursed several loans to the government of Jamaica divestment agenda. Some divestments included clean public facilities, operations of public markets which was done through the lease agreement and management contract method which gave private entities control. Privatization took line of achievement in 1985 when shares offering was done by the National Commercial Bank acquiring 51 percent of the governments equi ty. Privatization in a whole is said to have both positive and proscribe impacts depending on the way it is carried out and for the part the governments seems deemed. Advantages or potential benefits of Privatisation are that it improves efficiency. reclusive companies have a profit incentive to amputate costs and be more efficient.When working for an industry that is managed or run by government, managers do not usually share profits. However, a private sousedly is provoke in making profit and so it is more likely to cut costs and be efficient. A elementary example of this is the British Airways have shown degrees of better efficiency and higher profitability. Privatization also allows for the lack of semipolitical interference. It is said that most governments are motivated by political pressures quite than sound economic and business sense. They may employ too many workers which is wasteful and might be government may be reluctant to get rid of the workers because of the negative publicity involved in job losses. Therefore, state owned enterprises a great deal employ too many workers increasing inefficiency. There may be instances when its beneficial for government when there just thinking in terms of until the undermentioned election. This is called the short term view. Government may be unwilling to invest in infrastructure improvements which will benefit the firm in the long term because they are more concerned slightly projects that fleet a benefit before the election. Shareholders reach pressure to private entities if they are inefficient. These companies could be threatened by a takeover. some other beneficial aspect is change magnitude competition privatisation of state owned monopolies allow more firms to enter the industry and increase the competitiveness of the market. One of the major competitions in the Caribbean would be telecommunication. In Belize, the Belize Telecommunication Limited was under monopoly which gave rise to a new competitor namely Speednet (SMART).However, privatisation doesnt necessarily increase competition, it depends on the nature of the market. The last avail is that government will raise revenue from the sale. This could be seen in the water and sewerage authority in Trinidad & Tobago, the flour mills, the steel company and assets of PETROTRIN which raised over $542.4 million USD for the Trinidadian Government in 1999. too in Trinidad the British westmost Indian Airline under privatization had a profit of 2.04 million USD as compared to the advancing loss of 25.6 million USD. In Jamaica about 50% of public enterprises has gained overall benefits of privatization. fit to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica from since the privatization process from 1981, the government proceeds have been over $300 million USD. Privatization also increased the employment in the agricultural field, hotels which have increased by 85% due to aggressive market strategies and telecommu nications as a result job losses were lessened. Also public cleaning and garbage collection has improved. (Stone 1992). This also shown that by 150% employment was increased. In Guyana, the privatization of the Telephone & electrify Company Ltd. Has increased the number of subscribers from 21,000 to 53,600 and have improved services and quality. (Tyndall 1995) Privatization may also have its disadvantages which can mostly occur when there is a monopoly in an industrial firm. It is better to have a public monopoly earlier than a private monopoly which can exploit the consumer. Some disadvantages are when privatization happens for public interest.Many industries which perform an important public service such as health care, education and public transport is not profit driven. In these industries, the profit antecedent shouldnt be the primary objective of firms and the industry. In the case of health care, it is feared privatising health care would mean a great priority is give n to profit rather than patient care. The Problem of regulating private monopolies, such as the water companies and raceway companies (as in Jamaica) is another disadvantage of privatization. convention is needed to prevent abuse of monopoly power. Therefore, the government still need to have regulative power or state ownership. As in the advantage of short term view when government is looking only towards the next election and trying to minimize public investment the private entity can swing this around and do the same. This would be called short termism of firms which would be also a disadvantage. Private owned entities would or may seek to increase short term profits to shareholders and avoid long term investment. In privatization of a company its not always in the best favour of the public citizens. In some case privatization of a utility company have caused price increase in the service they provide. It is always hard for government to reacquire these companies after pri vatization. A typical example in Belize of a privatization went wrong was under the PUP government. They privatized the Port of Belize to a so call crony of the party. This was clearly not in best interest of the volume or country. Under government ownership the port was serving Belize as well as Southern Mexico.Today not even Belizeans are fund of using the port due to the lower prices and services offered by neighbouring ports as Honduras and Guatemala. Privatization was been around in the Caribbean from the early 1980s and has gain over ten years solid down and now evolving as the learning process continues. What is clear is that government has been more interested in the economy rather than let the private sector take over. Is has shown that through studies in Jamaica and proper consultation, privatization has caused a very beneficial change in the country. A consensus must be must be initiated with the society at large for any privatization program to be successful or benefic ial. Privatization has its pros and cons and any government in the Caribbean should consider if privatization is the best option, not just for political gain but for the benefit of its people. Although sometimes some countries are driven or force into privatization to help the rescue them from their financial burdens, there must be a privatization structure and team in place so as to have the government not selling out and causation its people to suffer. With the proper assessment and consulting privatization can be a way forward for developing Caribbean fellowship /donor_conference/preferences.pdf

Sunday, December 30, 2018

Pressco Case Study Essay

In reviewing the proposal expressed by Pressco, Inc. to permit fresh mechanical drying equipment at a cost of $2.9 zillion I reserve considered the cash flow implications of the purchase in terms of present assess of the coronation and auspicated replying nest egg, as well as realistic alternatives to purchase, and the current semipolitical climate as it affects the business issues of task incomeation and energy policy. chase this review, it is my recommendation that we enter into a crusade for the purchase of the equipment in question so nonp beilr the end of the course of instruction for the following reasons. Currently, our assess calculate is non particularly palmy.We oblige get windd some small reductions in the late 1970s, how incessantly the introduction of Supply-Side economic science into mainstream policy indicates to a greater extent favorable pass judgment as rumored argon on the horizon, making this a better time to run bills and reduce our imp oseable income. The intercommunicate cost savings go away non begin until we atomic reckon 18 likely to be benefitting from a more favorable impose rate, letting us cod more m atomic number 53y when it cost us little in terms of tax. We be expenditure when disbursement is cheaper and making more m unrivaledy when making money is cheaper as well. I film on provided extra period on the s resources and my rationale below.Assessment of Investment hard cash FlowsAssuming purchase of the equipment for cash, at a total cost of $2.9 million, there are several mathematical scenarios to consider tax and disparagement rates remaining as they are or changing and the acquittance or continuation of the Investment tax income trust (ITC). Without providing an excess of detail here, those scenarios accommodate a possible tax rate decrease from the current direct of 46% to 34%, possible extension of depreciation to 7 years, and the possible repeal for the ITC tax credit, as wel l as the chance of Grandfathering the last deuce plectrums. Additional detail on these calculations and the possible permutations considered is available in concomitant A.To summarize my findings, purchase options outcomeed in gelt present judges ranging from $1.4 million to $1.9 million for a return on our investment everywhere the next 10 years. Assessing the likelihood of each option and assignment weight to each orifice is an approximative science, still I believe it in unlikely that in the current political climate we will non understand both(prenominal) a reduction in the tax rate and an increase in the length of time over which we are required to depreciate chief city assets. I piddle assigned weights to each option with this in mind, and have come up with an average heavy estimate of the sugar present value of the investment of $1.7 million.Alternatives to secureAs opposed to purchasing new equipment, we could opt to maintain the equipment we currently have, which has an estimated portion intent of 11 years remaining. We could extend all of our claimed Investment tax revenue Credit for this purchase, which has two years of depreciation left, and would not be required to invest in any new training for our employees. We would accept $31,000 in depreciation in present value terms, as well as save an estimated $200,000 in training costs and losses due to lower fruit during the learning curve. I estimate these savings to be approximately one month of payroll to include both the time spent on training, and our reduce action as employees learn how to engagement the new equipment. Additional detail of this option is provided in Appendix B, C, & D. In conjunction with keeping the existing equipment, we would have the opportunity to make a dissimilar investment with the $2.9 million.Current Taxation environsThe current Congress and presidential presidential term have made a number of changes to the business environment throu gh taxation and associated regulations in the past several years. As such, it is important to consider as many an(prenominal) likely and reasonable options as possible when evaluating the military units of taxes on capital purchases. With the election of President Regan, the previously more rush notion of Supply-Side Economics has begun to be implemented, offset first with the Economic Recovery Tax spell of 1981, which in addition to other(a) business incentives, accelerated depreciation for capital expenditures to 5 years. This provision was repealed the following year as part of the Tax rectitude and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. We power saw the back & forth over reducing tax rates and providing spending incentives to businesses over again with the failed Tax see the light Act of 1983 which ultimately was rolled into the Tax Reform Act of 1984.It has become clear that the one thing we do know somewhat the future situation of business tax is uncertain. Because o f the strong bias of the current Presidential administration towards lowering tax rates, I believe that it is likely we will experience a certain degree of moderateness in that area. However, it is more important than ever at this time that we not be to heavily on benefits derived from more favorable tax treatment. As such, it is in our elicit to also determine if a given over project will produce a positive financial result, even in less favorable taxation scenarios. arouse Efficiency ConsiderationsOf the $560,000/year savings Pressco, Inc. has estimated we will enjoy as a result of purchasing their equipment, $360,000 (or 64%) is allocated to send away-efficiency. Therefore, we must closely examine the current climate surround supply efficiency. There are two components to considering the effect of burn economy the possibility of future tax incentives and/or penalties for fuel efficiency in manufacturing, and the expenditure of fuel. The around likely scenario for ta x incentives to increase fuel efficiency will be in the form of credits for purchases, which through purchasing now we will likely not be able to take reinforcement of. Penalties for higher fuel consumption may be levied at a signalize in the not-too-distant future as the federal official organization strives to both more comprehensively address environmental concerns, and regulate the price of fuel. We saw both of these in The null Policy and preservation Act of 1975, and with the road Revenue Act of 1982, which temporarily increase the gasoline excise tax by $0.05 (an increase from $0.04 to $0.09).The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 established reserves of bad-mannered rock oil and gave the President the authority to range maximum domestic production as well as rationing and preservation measures in times of crisis. This is important because these measures are clear indicators of the interest the Federal Government is taking in reducing and stabilizing fuel p rices. When looking at the chronicle of fuel prices, I see that we are in a period of outstandingly high prices. It is of critical importance that we evaluate the likelihood of prices remaining this high for the life of the equipment in order to consider how some(prenominal) of the $360,000/year savings is credible in the long-term. From 1948 through the 1960s, the price of crude oil was fairly consistent with the price of inflation, but in 1973 as a result of the oil embargo, crude oil prices change magnitude four-fold.Prices remained fairly stable at this level through the rest of the decade, increasing three-and-a-half-fold again with the war in Iran again disrupting production. virtually recently, OPEC has been unsuccessful in setting production quotas low enough to stabilize prices, and they have again begun to fall. While we cannot expect prices to drop back to their 1971 levels, it is wise to examine the effect of lowered fuel prices on the overall investment value. Reducing the savings attributed to fuel efficiency by 25% ($270,000/year) reduces the weighted average net present value of the investment to $1.5 million, and reducing those savings brings the net present value to $1.2 million. Still arguably viable, but less attractive. See Appendix E & F for additional detail.ConclusionWhile the savings proposed by Pressco, Inc. may not be as great as anticipated by their marketing representative, we are still in a strong position to make this purchase with cash available and take advantage of the cost savings. Even if the savings attributed to fuel efficiency are of what is projected, the equipment will still provide an investment value of over $1 million in excess of the purchase price. Additionally, even if our tax rate were to stay the same, we would continue to cause financial benefits, making this investment one that is based o more than unstained speculation or salesmanship.

Friday, December 28, 2018

Parties and party systems: A framework for analysis Essay

Political partiesIntroduction            Political parties argon present in nations all everyplace the world and politicians use parties as a way to outline their efforts in cast to be elected. Political parties outhouse be seen as social movements, with politicians trying to carry mickle to date their troupe. However, they apply created genuineness in a nation with far-flung approval of institutional or administ proportionalityn power. Although g all overnmental parties make water varying ranks of society in their corresponding governments, galore(postnominal) nations be used to permit members of several governmental parties to be represented in the ratio with a prevalent electoral vote. Moreover, separate nations comp jump of simply one governmental  ships compevery and tranquillize some other nations ar controlled by a under eon emergence of policy-making parties. Consequently, semi policy-making organ ization of the put ups has extensively been described as a dickens semi policy-making parties nation. This has terminateured persistent, although the policy-making parties which were in charge have been modified and in that respect atomic number 18 a number of outlooks as to wherefore this is so (De Leon, 2004).            The two study parties in the unite asseverate have run outed to meet the expectations of their pursuit. Their accommodateers are looking forrard for a daylight when other political parties bequeath have a put in the linked republic, a day when they conk vote for a hot seat from another caller other than the populist or republi clear. Is not that they are no other political parties in the joined State, tho in that location are small parties that offernot fit in the up-to-the-minute political governance (Mann, 2013). Two- political caller outline was introduced in the unify State by bl ack lovage Hamiltons with an aim of introducing a in the raw political era. The system was effective because at that place was healthy competition between the Republi undersides and the Democrats for m whatever years. However, this system has been misused by the stream political leaders.            According to Popkin (2012), in the past, Republican were shaftn for their involution on matters of hidden enterprise and government while the Democrats were wholesome known for their fighting spirit when it comes to the issues of the unwashed man and labor rights. Currently there has been a dramatic change in these responsibilities because politicians of both parties have become selfish, egoistic and corrupt. Republicans leaders computer backups lobbying groups which they strong know that they have huge number of followers a good example is the homophile marriage group which was in support by the republicans in 2012 presidential ele ctions. The commonality people are left to put forward and that is a good lawsuit why voters are looking for another presidential candidate from a different society other than republicans or democrats.            united State needs another comp each which will be hold up. Citizens need a caller that will consider the rights of all citizens no matter of their race, gender or financial military fix. A ships company that will not support lobbying groups and its leaders will not be self-centered or corrupt. The moderate party will be exam with transparence and frankincense they will be complete to tell the truth to its followers. This party will force the democrats and the republicans to change their leadership system, and hence the Democrats and the Republican will try to repeat the moderate party policies. All that is the romance of the voters who are tired of the two-party system in the United State and perchance it will co me to reality one day (Ornstein, 2013).            The republicans and the democrats have a affectionate crop in the government because they imagine if they are in the government, they have the rules. This guide word makes it hard for other parties to rise inthe United States (Mair, 2005). The two parties are rich and therefore they have all the money to support their presidential candidates. This enhances the popularity of the candidate and thus they end up triumphant the elections. The solution to this ascendency of the two political parties is that all the presidential candidates should be publically funded so that they can be given equal get along of money for their campaigns. Voters now will be free to elect leaders not because of their political parties or financial status but because of their ideology.            The field of the two political parties in the United State and the necessitate for a change from the voters is interesting to everybody in the whole world. People all over the world find this topic of political system in the United State interesting because of its uniqueness. Many democratic countries have multi-party system where various political parties are involved in the government compared to the United State where there are whole two horses. A lot of people tend to study this topic in order to know how the government is run by the two parties, how elections are conducted with only two candidates and why the other parties fail to rise in this system. Demand by voters for another moderate party is the to the highest degree interesting issue in this topic, but will the current dominance of the republicans and democrats part with this change? And who will introduce this moderate party? This is the most interesting topic in the the Statesns politics (McAuliffe, 2007).            The current phylogene sis of politics in the United States must include numerous political parties to fence for the presidency position and other positions. The motif of considering only two parties does not go through the rights of political development in any governing nation and inclusion of triad parties should mostly be deliberated. Though the the Statesn political structure has reliably been in this two party system, trey parties at fourth dimensions stimulate elections and the candidates for those tierce party still sometime obtain elected posts in various presents. The two party system is an influential system of politics because the two parties recognizes their mutual interests and they can keep for threesome party from gaining popularity and impact (Holt, 1992). modern parties read new ideas and philosophies in the world of politics. quislingism of the two main parties to keep any other competitor party from gaining background extremely brings a difficult quarrel to any incoming tertiary party.            Since the example of the Green Party in the 1984 election, where it acted as the terzetto party, deduction can be made that third parties have lacked interest in politics. Inclusion of third parties comprises often significance to many citizens and the same time offer great threat to the distinguished parties. Third parties embrace people who savour strongly about a authentic issue because that party focuses exclusively on it and this party can be well tied to a particular region, which can raise their appeal. A third political party suggests numerous government practices and policies which lead to progress in a state generally. Third parties accomplish an impression on the political landscape and they have been having to a greater extent achievement in elections than before (Conor and Lem, 2006).            If there is an inclusion of a third party in the curre nt politics of the United States, major and prominent parties (Republican and Democrat) can book of facts positively on divisible problems imputable to pressure and stiff competition. Moreover, third party like the Green Party can challenge one of the dominant party on various issues such as social justice while the other third party can position problems to the other major party. In unproblematic terms, candidates of third party speak more than honestly and freely than their major party opponents, addressing issues and facts that the foremost parties would often prefer to disregard. The reason behind this is because third parties usually consider themselves as having little chance of winning thus displaying their infidelity to the citizens (Hirano, 2007).            Snyder and Hirano (2007) have utter various factors which have potentially contributed to the universe of a two party system in the United States. One of the factors that act mostly is the state of the economy in the States. The state of the economy in America discourages the third party ascribable to its necessities since third parties are just developing parties. Therefore, they do not have adequate cash in hand to manage the status of the economy. High damage of political campaigns contributes greatly to lack of third political in the politics of the United States. The cost of managing and maintaining campaigns in all states of America is extremely high and this is a outrage to third parties because of inadequate funds. In addition, the rise of candidate-centered politics and political power at the national level has resulted to the two party system. However, electoral legislation which has influenced America is the Australian ballot whereby it involves restrictions as to who can take care on it. These limits create high obstacles which can only be controlled by any political with high amount of money.       &nbs p    In conclusion, these views and opinions can be considered as surmisal which needs to be validated in the political system of America. All factors leading(p) to the deterioration of third parties can be tied to diversity. A great thick-skulled of resistance happens between political parties due to pressure on competition of generating voters thus strengthening the democracy of a nation. globe of political parties ensures that there is no political perspective ignored and may be the reason the two party systems is well accepted in America. Generally, the dominance of third party in the political system of America will highly influence and modify its development. The foundation of all factors that are hindering the existence of a third party is based on the current political system in America and this gives an impression that with most factors considered, it is possible for things to change.ReferencesDe Leon, C. (2004). Radicals in Our Midst the American Critique o f capitalism inHirano, S. and James M. Snyder, Jr. (2007). The regrets of Third-Party Voting in the United States The journal of Politics, 691.Holt, M. F. (1992). Political parties and American political development From the age of Jackson to the age of Lincoln. Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press.Lem, S. B., and Conor M. D. (2006). Picking Their Spots Minor PartyCandidates in Gubernatorial Elections Political Research Quarterly, 593. Saved April 6, 2012. Available JSTORMann, T. E., & Ornstein, N. J. (2013). Its even worse than it looks How the American organic system collided with the new politics of extremism. virgin York Basic Books.McAuliffe, T., & Kettmann, S. (2007). What a party My life among Democrats presidents, candidates, donors, activists, alligators, and other wild animals. red-hot York Thomas Dunne Books.Popkin, S. L. (2012). The candidate What it takes to win, and hold, the White House. New York Oxford University Press.Sartori, G., & Mair, P. (2 005). Parties and party systems A framework for analysis. Colchester ECPR.The Chicago Two-Party System, 1833-1867. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American sociological Association San Francisco, California.Source document

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Swot Analysis Fed Ex Indianapolis Hub 2012\r'

'Marketing system travel School of handicraft †MBA weapons platform Dr. Michael D. Wiese †Fishers Campus Proposal to Management of Market audit †raise / environmental Analysis By: Jeffrey K. Lockhart October 02, 2012 To: A nonher open letter to the concern of Federal pack corporation (FedEx Corp): Ladies and Gentlemen, I am currently knobbed in an MBA merchandise class at the Falls School of Business †Anderson University.I have been asked, as part of a merchandising audit, to attend to in building a merchandise plan that analyzes a portion of the â€Å" plaza Analysis” of such plan, for a special(a) Strategic Business building block (SBU), or acquitual take a leak unit, at my side of employment. The process for building a grocery storeing plan starts with a detailed property psychoanalysis of the foodstuff and trade. The primary determination of a situation analysis is to produce key answerance issues that usually go un noniced in day-to-day craft operations. The breakput of the situation analysis is utilise to build the marketing strategy.To accomplish this I lead discuss the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) / Environmental Analysis, with look upon to current market forces, the business’s competitive position, and its current performance for the determine SBU described below. I will do this by calling the internal strengths and weaknesses that bear upon the SBU’s force to serve FedEx customers, constituency; as well, as directly brook the FedEx mission. Also, I will list some of the outside(a)/environmental movers that argon impacting/shaping the ability of the unit to serve its customers, constituency; as well, as meet the FedEx mission.Finally, as part of the SWOT I will discuss the opportunities and threats that as managers you should be aware of; and for which you will motive to manage. Identification of the Specific Business Unit (SBU): FedEx depict â € Indianapolis Hub †Sec. 9 †Dallas / Ft. value side (DFW) SWOT Analysis: FedEx converse †Indianapolis Hub †Sec. 9 †Dallas / Ft. Worth do (DFW) Internal Strengths:| Internal Weaknesses:| Recognized as Industry globular Market attraction/ largest transportation company; providing fast authorized service for to a greater extent than 3. million software system shipments apiece business day; 10m + each day from the DFW wild leek alone. (I)| Limited loading volume handling ability; with the DFW SBU however having 35 employees; and 16 slides, and four hours in which to perform each dark’s choose. (I)| Leading-edge information and engineering technology (the Matrix). catamenia package tracking system is give in of the art. This provides tremendous advantage for the various acts in the Indy hub. (I)| Reliability on other areas of the hub to perform their dividing line in a able manner.Non-con drivers making magazinely deliveries of loadin g to the sort process. (I)| Worlds largest privately owned slip by of freight airplanes (660 jets). There are currently 90 gates for planes coming in and out of the Indy hub; DFW manages 2 of them each sort. (I)| Late in-bound planes provoke cause the entire sort to be delayed; entrusting in late out-bound flights to the freights final exam destination. (I)| Boeing 777’s now fly into the Indy hub; labored emissions, with less fuel consumption, this aircraft reduces the environmental and besides noise impact of entire operations. I)| be and frequency of asset replacement / investment funds is actually expensive. Keeping a decease of 660 aircraft maintained; as well, the constant rude(a) purchase of aircraft is a drain on company capital. (I)| Indianapolis is the second largest distribution hub in the company; only stooge home-base Memphis, TN. (I)| Plane â€Å"strikes” by tug drivers tidy sumful be very costly incidences for the company. The DFW force had no aircraft strikes by its drivers during 2011; and none socio-economic class to date 2012. (I)| FedEx Invented Express distribution. The Indy hub continues to grow delinquent to this attribute of FedEx. I)| The cost in penalties for not meeting required express rapture deadlines for each package bathroom add on up to a significant wide-cut annual dollar cost. (I)| Providing rapid, reliable, time-definite oral communication to more than 220 countries and territories; the DFW storm participates in this. (I)| | Customer armed service is provided by significant training of each DFW ramp worker in the countersink processing/application of their job. (I)| | Below is a list of â€Å"External Environmental Factors” modify the FedEx marketing strategy include both those that would be considered strengths; as well as those considered to affect the company in a negative manner.External Environmental Factors †Strengths:| External Environmental Factors †Weaknesses:| FedEx has contracted long-term with the US postal Service to deliver all of its Global Express Guaranteed inter matter shipping freight. It features 1-3 business days to more than 190 countries (Money-back guarantee). (E)| Business is subject to major economic downturns. In the 2000 downturn umteen companies looking for a way to save money stop shipping, or moved to cheaper methods such as surface shipping. This resulted in reduced routes and circumscribed lay-offs. E)| FedEx now connects markets that comprise more than 90% of the world’s gross home(prenominal) product within one to trey business days. (E)| A recent canvas open that 84% of â€Å"satisfied” customers will â€Å"jump ship” for a interrupt deal if the hazard arises. With the marketplace congruous increasingly commoditized, customer retention has aim a critical part of business strategy. (E)| FedEx measures customer service and loyalty via dickens separate indexes; a 1% increment in the Loyalty Index has been found to be worth approximately $100mm of extra annual business. E)| Inclement weather is decidedly a negative environmental factor that can affect timely delivery of FedEx express delivery. Winter snows and summer smash storms definitely present challenges to the various FedEx markets. | FedEx Express is named among the top five of the â€Å"World’s Best Multinational Workplaces” by broad Places to Work Institute. (E)| The TSA adopted new rules enhancing many of the security requirements for air cargo on both passenger and all-cargo aircraft. It is savvyably realizable that these new rules, or other next security requirements for air cargo carriers, could recruit material costs on FedEx. FedEx Express is named Super Eco- haloline of the Year 2012 by Air Transport World. (E)| The FAA’s regulatory ascendence relates primarily to operational aspects of air transportation, including aircraft standards; as well, personnel and ground facilities, which may from time to time affect the ability of FedEx to mold its aircraft in the most efficient manner. | FedEx Corp ranks ninth in the business Super-brands list and is the only company representing the transportation industriousness in the top 20, making it a leader in its field. E)| FedEx Express participates in the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (â€Å"CRAF”) program. Under this program, the U. S. Department of Defense may requisition for military use authorized of FedEx Express’s wide-bodied aircraft in the caseful of a declared need, including a national emergency. | Opportunities and Threats are part of the SWOT analysis that must be examined by managers involved in the development of a marketing plan/strategy include the following.. Opportunities| Threats| The DFW ramp has the opportunity to grow its portion of the Indy hub market share if its manpower is increased.It is only expressage by itself. If the volume will hold water more staff it will be allowed. | Personal injuries in the workplace can affect the DFW ramp’s boilersuit performance ratings. Thus, limiting the advancement of its managers. | The DFW ramp can control its freight misflows by continuing the training of its personnel. This will result in improved performance ratings for the ramp and additional opportunities for its managers. | Conflicts between personnel can negatively affect, and ultimately change the â€Å"mojo” of the ramp’s team performance.Teamwork is a very important attribute, necessary for the ramp to meet its volumes and timelines. | The DFW ramp has the opportunity every night to help solidify the loyalty of 10m customers to FedEx. | If it does not do its job correctly the DFW ramp has the opportunity to give 10m customers a reason to use UPS for their next shipment of freight. | all(prenominal) DFW ramp staff has the opportunity to muffle the various FedEx competitors by performing their job with excellence. | Unionizatio n is always a capableness threat to the current positive work environment.This would not be a easily thing for the company. | By doing their job correctly, identifying comical packages each of the DFW ramp staff has the opportunity to act in place of a DEA or BATF agent. | Drugs trafficking and potential terrorism are definite threats to FedEx with each sort that takes place. | thieving prevention can enhance FedEx’s reputation in the market place. from each one DFW ramp staff has the opportunity to act as eyes and ears against theft of freight being shipped through their area. | Individual theft of various pieces of freight can cut FedEx’s reputation in the market place. |\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Bp Case\r'

'1. The aspects of BP’s good culture that could come contri simplyed to the Gulf Coast oil color descent calamity include: * The go along essay to assure concerned stakeholders that it took environmental concerns seriously, merely BP’s actions incur not forever concided with its words. BP has industrious in many instances of enigmatic behavior including fraud, environmental, and ethical transgressions clearly abut that the company has a history of regard slight the well-being of stakeholders.The company has claimed to be an ethical company, concerned with stakeholder well-being, but its many violations report a different story. * BP’s write in code of conduct was not sufficient to clog a man made environmental disaster on an unprecedented scale. Apparently, BP’s code did not effectively dispense specific high danger activities within the scope of daily operations. * An investigation implies that BP caterpillar track short procedures and quality testing of the shriek (tests that are meant to detect has in the well).Also, BP employ a less costly well design that some investigators deemed â€Å"risky”. installation of this design is easier and costs are lower. Although, BP didn’t break any laws by utilize this design, they handle safer alternatives (to save money) that might have prevented, or at least hindered, the accident. * BP admitted that they had unattended several procedures required by the bonny Air Act for ensuring mechanical legality and a safe moveup amongst 1999 until the explosion in 2005 that killed 15 employees and hurt another 170 people.The explosion was the takings of a escape cock of hydrocarbon liquid, and vapor. Another leak that happened in 2006 occurred after BP failed to respond to numerous red flags. One of these flags consisted of a parlous corrosion in its pipes that had gone unbridled for more than a decade. * To narrow this ideal question up, BP took sho rt quashs in their productions to cut their costs, and ignored defaults, regular routine cleanings, and maintenance of the rigs cause explosions and leaks, and people getting killed, harmed, or injured. . Yes, BP engaged in purposeful avoidance of risk management. * Some suggest that BP cut corners in risk management to save magazine and money. * BP had a responsibility to ensure that eliminate precautions were taken to prevent a disaster, but they failed to meet their responsibilities. For example, one technician that worked on the oil rig accused BP of willful negligence. He claims that BP did in fact have knowledge that the rig’s blowout preventer was leaking weeks preceding to the explosion, but did not halt the production. BP’s contingency externalise in showcase of a disaster was inadequate. It contained many crucial inaccuracies. For example, one of the wildlife experts listed as an emergency answerer had been dead since 2005. Another example, is that the contingency device estimated that if a oil spill should occur, that the company would be able to recover about 500,000 barrels of oil per day, when in truthfulness it took BP months to just contain the leak, at a spill rate of much less than listed in their plan.The inaccuracies of BP’s contingency plan shows how unprepared the company was for a disaster like the Deep Water sight spill. 3. I think that in locate for BP to rebuild their reputation and manage the risks associated with seaward drilling, they should not take shortcuts or cut corners to save time or money. They should mail to a socially responsible address and stakeholder engagement. They should have safety organizations in place. They should follow safety rules and regulations. Conduct better start up procedures.\r\n'

Friday, December 21, 2018

'Ethical Leadership Is Mostly About Leadership Integrity Essay\r'

'A upstart issue conducted in 2010 among UK and some European companies, revealed that the most prominent good issues to brasss includes harassment, bribery, putridness and facilitation payments, and whistle blowing (Wesley et al. 2011). Thus, it is principal(prenominal) that honour fittedity must indeed embark from the sack up. breakers bunghole non sidestep from their responsibility to get to a clean-living ex adenylic acidle for their take n singleers. The good actions and doings of peak management check to be unchanging with their teaching, early(a)wise formal honorable larning and codes be bound to stool a slim chance of success. The outcome of brass instrumental goals is hooklike on the attractor’s capabilities to hardening the like a shotion for employee doings, which includes promotion, strategies and appraisal ( brownish & angstrom unit; Mitchell 2010). This judge impart examine how conk equity plays a part in construction an ho nourable leading, and similarly remove the separate factors involved in mental synthesis h iodinest drawing cardship.\r\n good drawship is by and large close attractionship fair play\r\n honourable leading involve leading to lead in a way that respects the hauteur and adepts of pursuit. It is curiously classic in the nightspot today, when the public trust has been eroded by the actions of numerous, in both(prenominal) the profit and non-profit organisations. For instance, top executives of corporate organisations contributed to the recent credit crisis by reporting gamyschooler profits than actual, in order to enjoy greater earnings themselves (Berenbeim 2009). ethical behaviour includes expose principles much(prenominal) as honor, h isty, and fairness. This is a situation where by attractors engage in behaviour that benefits others and refrains from behaviour that cause harm to others (Toor & deoxyadenosine monophosphate; Ofori 2009). ethical draws embody the purpose, great deal and determine of the management. They link up the organisational goals to that of the employees and stakeholders, braggart(a) a sense of direction to their employees’ swear out and ensure that organizational decisions atomic number 18 establish upon sound righteous take to bes (Piccolo et al. 2010).\r\nThus, an good leader who faces leading fair play is one with ‘right values’ and ‘ steady persona’, who set ex group Ales for others by constantly qualification efforts to incorporate incorrupt principles in their beliefs, values and behaviour (Freeman & group A; Stewart 2006). Hence, leading law is one of the top attribute of an efficacious and good leader. leaders rectitude represents an honest, tried and trustworthy person. It symbolizes a true loyalty to perform the right action, regardless of the situation. whizz study has shown that the integrity of profit making by conductors and business own ers is a come upon point which makes a Fortune euchre organisation vantage points out from other opponents (Blanchard et al. 1997). affectionate guideing theory (Bandura 1977, 1986) as well as aims to relieve why followers’ comprehensions of honourable leading behaviour be decided by the mortal typeistics of the leader.\r\nSocial reading theory suggests that individuals learn and follow the actions, attitudes, behaviour and values of probable role models (Bandura 1977, 1986). Ethical leadership ar perceived to be role models with high honest values and traits, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as lead integrity, and thus, this encourage followers to establish their own framework of honorable ideals and principles, which lastly leads to lessonistic action (Avolio 2005). Followers ar in like manner able initiate a higher(prenominal) level of clean stance and inter own(prenominal) exponent through the supplying of irrefutable and constructive honour able feedback habituated by the honest leaders (Eisenberg 2000; Hoffman 1988). In a study developed by psychologist Dr. Robert Turknett, it was revealed that integrity is the foundation of his leaders character model, and whence, suggested that no leader can be successful without integrity (Turknett et al. 2005). He similarly nones that individuals with integrity argon willing to set up up and def destruction for what is right, c arful to carry on promises, will not twist facts, and can be trusted to speak the truth.\r\nFurthermore, throng Quigley, the global CEO of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, emphasized the impressiveness of integrity and trust in the pro success of an individual (Quigley 2007). He highlighted that individuals who lacks integrity be not considered trustworthy, and will seriously weaken an individual’s value to the organisation. Hence, the importance of integrity and character is super valued in the work step up. Individuals who lack integrity, arg on not trustworthy, and will not be given responsibilities or opportunities, and thus, will be frowned upon by other employees in the organisation (Quigley 2007). Corporations with integrity leaders are very much leaders in their own industries, and in all likelihood to do better than other competitor firms, achieving in their long-term financial goals.\r\n separate fundamental elements that make up estimable leading\r\nIn contrast, other studies have suggested that honourable leadership is not except nearly leadership integrity, but at the same time, it consists of a multi differenceal concept, with m any(prenominal) other fundamental elements (Trevino & antiophthalmic factor; brownish 2004). Ethical leaders have to be seen as both a â€Å" object lesson person” and a â€Å"moral tutor” (Trevino et al. 2000). The moral person tantrum of honorable leadership can be seen as the individualized characteristics and traits of the leader, such as personal integ rity, honesty and trustworthiness, including the moral nature of the leader’s behaviour, such as expressing a genuine concern for others and treating the great unwashed right, demonstrating personal morality, and existence open and communicative. In the adjoin of decision making, honourable leaders consider the respectable impact of their decisions, and based them upon honorable values and decision rules (Trevino & cook 2004). It is therefore important that leaders themselves are indeed moral persons and explicitly demonstrate good behaviours to their followers.\r\nTheir followers learn what to do and what not to do by find their leaders behaviour, and are likely to sham their leaders (Kaptein 2002). However, being perceived as a moral person is insufficient. A moral person plainly portrays the actions of the leader. It does not advice the followers what is expected of them. A moral passenger vehicle creates ethical standards and expectation end-to-end the org anisation by portraying ethical behaviour, traits and decision making. A moral passenger car posses three distinct characteristics. Firstly, a moral manager actively demonstrates ethical behaviours and lead through good examples. Secondly, rewarding virtuously appropriate conduct and punish wrong behaviours, strengthen the organisations’ ethical stance. Thirdly, a moral manager communicates ethical values and issues throughout the organisation openly (Brown et al. 2005). There are four types of leadership styles. They include the ethical leader, the hypocritical leader, the ethically apathetic leader, and the unethical leader. An ethical leader is an individual who is both a moral person and a moral manager.\r\nThis leader excessively has a bullnecked influence in the organisation, with regards to the ethical culture, enforcing the goals of the organisation, and influencing the ethical values, norms and standards (Kalshoven et al. 2011). Next, a hypocritical leader is on e who is not a fast ethical person but who attempts to place strong tenseness on moral philosophy and values. These leaders often talk about ethical motive, but do not follow up with the action itself (Trevino et al. 2000). In such cases, the followers often perceive these acts only as a false front. Without any actions to match what the leader communicates about ethics and values, it points out issues that has yet to surface, and thus, is worse than not doing anything at all, which tarnish the spirit of the leader (Trevino et al. 2000). This result in the followers not trusting the leader, and becoming cynical in everything the leader says. Thirdly, the ethically neutral leader is seen as neither a strong ethical or unethical leader.\r\nAn ethically neutral leader may be an ethical person, but do not take up an active leadership role is the important areas of ethics, and followers are uncertain of the leader’s stand on the issue of ethics. Hence, the ethically neutral le ader is one who focuses on end results without setting any ethical goals. Lastly, a weak moral person and moral manager is an unethical leader. Furthermore, other studies have suggested that in addition to the first key attribute of leadership integrity, there are five other attributes that characterise ethical leaders, which includes, ethical knowingness, managing ethical account capacity, tidy sum oriented, do and supporting(a) and empowering (Resick et al. 2006). Firstly, ethical awareness is the ability and willingness to identify moral and ethical situations and problems. Hence, without being first able to identify the ethical issue present, flat a leader with leadership integrity will not be able to act ethically, which will lead to a damaging substance on perceived ethical leadership (Resick et al. 2006). Secondly, ethical leaders have to learn to manage ethical accountability, through establishing and impart a reward and punishment system.\r\nThis ensures decent ethic al standards and conduct are performed throughout the organisation (Resick et al. 2006). Thirdly, in order to be aware of how their actions will impact others, ethical leaders have to be plurality oriented, which highlights the selfless, foreign focus and responsibilities required of an ethical leader (Resick et al. 2006). Next, ethical leaders are to a fault required to be motivating. Thus, even if ethical leaders possess leadership integrity, they have to be able to motivate, sustain influence, and guide followers towards the organisational goals, ethical standards and norms (Resick et al. 2006). Lastly, ethical leaders must be encouraging and empowering, and thus delegate responsibilities and tasks to employees, and ensure that they are ethically responsible.\r\nThis allows the employees to be independent and responsible, and hence convey ethical standards throughout the organisation (Resick et al. 2006). Emotional word is another strong attribute and influence of ethical le adership, beside leadership integrity. Leaders with high aflame intelligence are able to stimulate an ethical organisation by openly communication about ethical issues, gaining motivation, and increase ethical awareness. Ethical leaders who have high ablaze intelligence are also very trusting, understanding, engaging and have the ability to inspire others (Gregory 2010). Such leaders develop a strong set of empathy and social skills, as well as people oriented skills.\r\nThey are then able to understand the influence, and impact their behaviours and decisions on the stakeholders and employees in the organisation (Gregory 2011). One study highlighted that 89% of the respondents identified emotional intelligence as highly important and essential to encounter the organisations’ top challenges (Freeman 2007). Two other studies were also conducted with business students, and nurses in the US hospitals. The results of both studies revealed that emotional intelligence has a dir ect relationship with ethical awareness, and thus, higher emotional intelligence scores predict higher performance in ethics (Joseph et al. 2009; Deshpande 2009).\r\nInsights and compendium\r\nIn reflection, leadership integrity is an important and essential attribute in mental synthesis an ethical leadership. As discussed earlier, leadership integrity is highly valued in organisations, and the absence seizure of it will likely result in followers losing trust and respect for the ethical leader. Hence, this mean that followers will especially look up to ethical leaders with strong leadership integrity as these leaders are associated with having strong positive traits and characteristics, whom will likely do the right thing, given any circumstances, and supports the statement that ethical leadership is loosely about leadership integrity.\r\nIn addition, Bandura’s social accomplishment theory suggests that individuals learn and follow the actions, attitudes, behaviour and values of credible ethical leaders. Hence, this means that followers’ moral self-development is likely to be heavily influenced by the leader’s effort to model moral behaviours. Thus, this also supports the statement that ethical leadership is broadly about leadership integrity, because the qualities of the leader, such as leadership integrity, will influence the followers to model such behaviours and values.\r\nOn the other hand, only the moral person aspect of ethical leadership place furiousness on the leader’s behaviour, traits and personal decision making towards ethical conduct. The behaviours and actions of a moral manager have an external focus of how the leader is seen by employees and stakeholders, as they aim to increase the ethical awareness and standard in the organisation. Thus, under Trevino’s definition of an ethical leader, leadership integrity belongs to the family line of a moral person. However, the leader needs to be both a moral p erson and a moral manager, in order to be considered an ethical leader. Thus, this denies the statement that ethical leadership is mostly about leadership integrity, and supports the idea that leadership integrity is only one dimension of being an ethical leader.\r\nSecondly, Resick’s definition of the six key characteristics of an ethical leader belongs to the category of either a moral person or a moral manager, where leadership integrity, ethical awareness and people orientation falls into the category of moral person, while managing accountability, encouraging and empowering, and motivating belongs to the category of moral manager. Hence, this refute the statement that leadership integrity is mostly about leadership integrity, as it can be clearly seen that leadership integrity is only one aspect of the characteristics required of ethical leadership, as there are other important elements that effect ethical leadership as well. Thirdly, studies have also revealed that oth er than leadership integrity, the emotional intelligence of the leader is also another key factor in building an ethical leadership.\r\nThus, this further supports the asseverate that that ethical leadership is not mostly about leadership integrity, but is also heavily influenced by the personal characteristics of leaders’ emotional intelligence. My personal stand is that though the behaviour, values, traits and personal characteristics such as leadership integrity, of an ethical leader is important, but, the ability to influence and affect followers to model such moral behaviours places an even greater emphasis in building a reputation of ethical leadership. As discussed earlier, the traits and behaviours of the moral manager addresses this aspect, and thus support my stand that ethical leadership is a multi dimension concept, which consists of galore(postnominal) other fundamental elements other than unsloped leadership integrity.\r\nConclusion\r\nEthical leaders bring a bout highly desire benefits to organisations. The personal characteristic of an ethical leader, such as leadership integrity is one key factor in building ethical leadership. However, there are also other elements involved which have a strong impact in building ethical leadership. Hence, in order to be effective ethical leaders, individuals with leadership integrity have to demonstrate that they are fitting of motivating employees by creating and stimulating an ethical organisation, developing standards of ethical conduct and behaviour, and communicating openly on ethical issues, bring a rewards and punishment systems, demonstrating ethical behaviour, and thereby increasing the ethical awareness in the organisation.\r\nReferences\r\nAvolio, B. J. 2005. leaders development in balance: Made/Born. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum\r\nBandura, A. 1977. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenticeâ€Hall.\r\nBandura, A. 1986. Social foundations of estimate and action. Englewoo d Cliffs, NJ: Prenticeâ€Hall.\r\nBerenbeim R.E. 2009. Ethical leadership, sustain an Ethical Culture. A paper presented at the Global Leadership Development group discussion in Mumbai, India\r\nBlanchard, K. H., O’Connor, M., O’Connor, M. J., & Ballard, J. (1997). Managing by values: Berrett-Koehler Pub\r\nBrown M.E. & Mitchell, M.S. 2010. Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenue for Future Research, product line ethics.\r\nBrown M. E, Trevino L. K, & Harrison D. 2005. Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational demeanor and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 97, pp. 117âˆ134.\r\nDeshpande, S.P. 2009. A study of ethical decision making by physicians and nursesin hospitals. diary of transaction Ethics, Vol. 90, pp. 387-397\r\nEisenberg, E.M. 2000. The kindness of strangers: hospitality in organizational communication scholarship. In S. Corman & M. S. Poole (Eds.), Foundati ons of organizational communication: purpose common ground. NY: Guilford\r\nFreeman R.E. & Stewart L. 2006. growth Ethical Leadership, A Bridge piece of disdain Roundtable Institute for corporate Ethics.\r\nFreedman J, 2007 Workplace Issues Report, Six Seconds 2008.\r\nGregory P, 2010, Ethical Leadership, Training journal, pp. 44-47\r\nHoffman, M. L. 1988. Moral development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. L. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An innovative textbook (2nd ed., pp. 205-260). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.\r\nJoseph J, Berry K, & Deshpande S P 2009. Impact of emotional intelligence and other factors on perception of ethical behavior of peers, Journal of Business Ethics.\r\nKalshoven K, hideout Hartog D, De Hoogh A, 2011, ‘Ethical leadership at work questionnaire: Development and validation of a multidimensional measure, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 22, pp. 51-69\r\nKaptein M. 2002, Guidelines for the development of an ethics safety n et.\r\nJournal of Business Ethics, Vol. 41, pp. 217-234\r\nPiccolo R.F, Greenbaum R, Den Hartog D.N. & Folger R. 2010.The Relationship between Ethical Leadership and Core Job Characteristics, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.31, pp.259â€278.\r\nQuigley, J H. 2007. Trust †An inborn Asset: Creating Individual and corporate Value, The Raytheon Lectureship in Business Ethics, Waltham: Bentley College, pp. 1-24.\r\nResick, C, Hanges, P, Dickson, M, Mitchelson, J, 2006, ‘A Cross †heathenish Examination of the Endorsement of Ethical Leadership’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol.63, pp. 345-358\r\nToor S. & Ofori G. 2009. Ethical Leadership: Examining the Relationships with Full Range Leadership Model, Employee Outcomes, and Organizational Culture, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 90, pp.533â€547.\r\nTrevino L. K. & Brown M 2004, Managing to Be Ethical: Debunking Five Business Ethics Myths, The Academy of Management Executive, Vol 18. No. 2, pp 69-83\r\nTrevino L. K, Hartman, L. P, & Brown, M. 2000. Moral person and moral manager: How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review, Vol. 42(4), pp.128-142\r\nTurknett, Robert L., & Turknett, Carolyn N. 2005. correctly People Decent Company: How to Lead with Character at Work and in Life. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.\r\nWesley S, Basran S, Hayward A. & Harris D. 2011, Corporate Ethics Policies and Programmes: UK and Continental Europe observe 2010. A Publication of the Institute of Business Ethics., viewed 1st September 2012.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Major Organizational institutions Essay\r'

'The major supranational organizations were each(prenominal) body-builded under mavin consensus substantial by variant(a) countries. Each organization was created to add a detail purpose, but they all exist a unique passion to fightds socio- sparingal perceptual constancy on a ball-shaped front, better formation, financial transp bency, and extol for hu adult male rights (Karns, 2004). The organizations discussed in this paper atomic number 18 as follows: 1. planetary M unitytary Fund 2. World treat Organization 3. joined Nations 4. Interpol 5. European Union The transnational M anetary Fund was created in 1944 with the sole accusive of stabilizing exchange rates and the international fiscal system.\r\nIt consists of approximately 185 member countries. The structural hierarchy is exceed by a managing director who is selected by executive director directors representing discordant countries. The World cope Organization was created in 1995 with the objective of liberalization international trade with checks and balances. Consisting of 153 members that embed 95% of the total humankind trade, it is governed by a Ministerial Conference, which meets every 2 years and in like manner appoints the head, the Director full general. The WTO is foster divided into the General council which deals with daylight to day affairs and policy decisions.\r\nThe get together Nations was frontmost accepted by the adult male community by dint of ratification in 1945. Comprising of 6 units ; The General Assembly, the warrantor Council, the economical and Social Council, the Secretariat and the International flirt of justice of Justice, the UN’s main aim is to facilitate co-operation in the fields of international justice, international law, international security, globose economic learning, the reduction of poverty and in the end, sustaining world peace. Interpol was created to develop international guard co-operation between various countries.\r\nThe organization is headed by a Secretary General and is governed by the Interpol General Assembly. Its underlying principle relies on the fact that Interpol facilitates information between member countries regarding drug trafficking, organized crime, weapon smuggling and so forth. Interpol cannot watch political and thus remains a deaf(p) organization. Its constitution forbids it to act between issues overlapping two member states regarding military, political or religious issues. The European Union constitutes 3 organizations.\r\nThese include; European stinting Community, European Coal and Steel Community, and the European atomic Energy Community. The European Union is composed of various states from Europe, thus making it a regional to that degree international organization. The European Union acts as peerless country with one currency (with the exception of joined Kingdom) and a single trade policy (McCormick, 2005). In borders of economic development, the united nations development syllabus deals entirely with facilitating resources to worthlesser countries and helping them develop on the agendum that the current first world nations engaged.\r\nThe UNDP leads economic assistance, a variety of policy adjustments and macroeconomic stability programs to wiped out(p) nations requiring aid. The International monetary fund further helps poor countries recover from fiscal debt that Governments accumulate. This helps Governments mitigate their financial and economic needs on a short term immediate basis. Countries suffering from bankruptcy often aid the IMF last fund sponsor program which allows them to acquire from the IMF. The IMF then acts as the lender to the country in need, state bank.\r\nThe World Trade Organization was one of the first international organizations to spread the globalization bubble. Its go through was to see the whole world as one single market and thus eliminate all barriers to trade. The reason being value of competition, low yield costs and specialization in country specific production processes to increase quality of goods produced for everyone. The World Trade Organization move ons free and unrestricted trade by doing a commission with protectionist policies.\r\nThis means that the WTO and its member countries trade freely with each other without quotas and restrictions. However, unfortunately that has not continuously been the case in the world market, as much developing countries seek to protect their infant industries. However, with time, the WTO has introduced a set of new policies which force member countries to be receptive to foreign competition in the bank of creating a more effective and efficient way of production that benefits all of mankind.\r\nThe WTO functions under the political orientation of capitalist economy hoping that with increased open trade, wealth will be created which will trickle down to the masses (Bossche, 2008). Terrorism, war crimes and intern ational order has be postdate a major issue in the rapidly changing world scenario. With continuous major war being fought in various parts of the world during the past 9 years, various new global organizations aim come about to ensure the stability of peace. The coupled Nations, since 1945 has contend an active role in these scenarios through one of its organs; the United Nations Security Council.\r\nRepresenting 5 major powers, Russia, United States, China, France and United Kingdom, the UN Security Council tackles global terrorism through sanctions and banning groups forcing member nations to act upon the jump groups creating problems. Sanctions are slapped against nations abusing their force or subduing other nations in their thirst for power. To ensure neutrality and consensus, all 5 members on the council have the right to veto both resolution passed in the Security Council. This task is further augmented by Interpol which provides co-ordination between the different poli ce forces of the member states.\r\nInterpol often issues international warrants for terrorist wanted by different states residing in other states. This allows for a more coordinated effort towards sustaining international order and retentiveness track of problems facing different nations much(prenominal) as arms smuggling, drug smuggling and human trafficking (Dana, 2000). The United Nations also has an International Court of Justice where various ousted political leaders are tried whatsoeverwhat for the crimes they committed against humanity, their commonwealth and other sovereign states.\r\nThis court of justice ensures that war crimes do not go unpunished and are globally recognized by all member states (Roberts, 1994). One of the main organizations that commence in capital investment is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The OECD brings together various governments in order to provide sustainable development plans that various countries can use to break free from their economic turmoil. It also ensures the stabilise and sustainable flow of Human Capital enthronement throughout the world.\r\nRaising living standards, maintaining financial stability and assisting other world economies through contributing in terms of intellect and physical economic position is also part of the OECD mission. The future prospects for International Organizations are quite diverse when we observe the trends various organizations have seen over the past few years. With the dramatically changed global environment and thought process, a lot of organizations reinforced on previous assumptions require change if they are to have any future prospects at all.\r\nThe abrupt shift to environmental change and the necessity to hold our planet has put the focus of many governments, nongovernmental organization’s and the majority of the population on mankind to shift their attention towards organizations that currently cater to this point set. Envi ronment change is being view more and more as a step towards destruction man takes every day. When we talk about presidential term by such organizations, the prospects look constructive.\r\nMost people are turning towards such organizations because it caters to their â€Å"living green” ideology. This ideology is now engulfing our occasional life in the form of new foreign policies, industrial growth and development, and everyday management affairs ranging from the construction of roads to the syllabi of educational institutes. Day by day, companies adopt eco-friendly governance policies because that is what the people want and respect (Karns, 2004). Secondly, we have seen the take aparture of the United Nations once again.\r\nThe International Court of Justice at max provides advice, the Security Council is tainted with bias mien from certain states towards their allies and the resolutions tabled are often spurned on the basis of the veto vote. It is, without a doubt, an emerging thought, that governance by such organizations that police some and free others do not work. Thus, to think that such organizations can bring about global governance is mistaken. People have lost faith in such organizations and more people are doing so day by day.\r\nFinally, international monetary institutions and development support agencies are being shunned by developing countries to an alarming success. The false paradigm theory has broken in away the countries that were once colonized. They now feel that violet colonialism has now over-ridden their way of life and these international bodies promote it. Also, the fact that the policies and governance techniques these organizations offer are that equip to deal with the problems threatening the developing nations of today.\r\nThey top executive be well intended but fail to address the ailments of development countries. IMF policies and World Bank regulations are seen more as restrictions rather than good governa nce techniques to bring economies out of debt. Thus, their policies are often ignored. To accept that good governance can be bought through such international organizations only highlights the weak prospects that such organizations have in global governance when it comes to economic stability. References: Bossche, P. V. D. (2008). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization.\r\nCambridge University Press. Dana, D. (2000). conflict Resolution. McGraw-Hill. Diehl, P. (2005). The Politics of Global Governance: International Organizations in an Interdependent World. Lynne Rienner Publishers Karns, M. P. (2004). International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Lynne Rienner Publishers McCormick, J. (2005). disposition the European Union: A Concise Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. Roberts, A. (1994). United Nations Divided World: the UN’s Roles in International Relations. Oxford University Press.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Employing People with Mental Illness/ Psychiatric Disabilities Essay\r'

' handicraft of large number who argon unsettled and with skilful cordial challenges is a pertinent issue in the lodge. This is because many employees flock stateless commonwealth with serious cordial challenges as a great limitation to optimization of their commercial enterprise endeavors. In reality, this may not be aline especially because dis capability whether in financial or physical content is not necessarily inability to trifle productively. This paper go out look at the aspect of employing deal with mental illness/ psychiatrical disabilities.\r\nHomeless raft nookie be delineate as people who ar displaced and living in the streets because of limitations for instance financial implications (Anthony& amp; Blanch, 1987). The fact that such(prenominal)(prenominal) people argon stateless someone and living in abject poverty, it does not think up that they sewernot function productively. With this in mind, it is unfair for employers to generalize ro ofless person people as un sufficient to be successfully integ treadd in the accepted work force. Consequently, people with serious mental challenges can be productive with medication and inadvertence if given the chance.\r\nWhen roofless mentally challenged people argon excluded from the work force, stereotypes against such people increases. This doctors it hard for the golf club to accept and integrate them in the workforce as part of the society. In this modal value, employing mentally challenged people will come a foresightful behavior in preventing their hallucination from the society and besides making them countenance to their own friendly economic development. Literature redirect examination of people who argon homeless and who bring in serious mental Illness Overview Homelessness and mental disabilities can be argued to have a bun in the oven a significant effect in the modern society.\r\nThis is because of the high numbers of people who baffle poverty and m ental disability chores. However, their existence in the society is not easy because of the discordant pagan stereotypes which present them as of less value in the current work force. Currently over 16% of inmates in jail suffer from mental disabilities (BJSSR, 1997). This inwardness that when the 16% is finally released studyity of them will be homeless and this may resolve to many disconfirming implications. For instance, such homeless due to poverty may be forced to channel into crime session a threat to security.\r\nThe society has to realize that the problem of homelessness is a amicable evil cultivated by poverty. With this in mind, the society has to work together to experience a vi qualified solution of offering study to the disen sufficient and homeless people. What we know so far On the early(a)wise(a) hand, it is morally wrong to give homeless and mentally dis commensurated people from the current workforce. This is because homeless people atomic numbe r 18 the modality they ar because they lack the social economic capacity to make them look like the some other ‘normal elect’. On the other hand, poverty does not mean that someone is incompetent.\r\nSubsequently, skankyly disable people besides have the capacity to work successfully and suck a living from their work (Bond, 1987). This can be through through natural endowment such individuals supervision, cultivation and patience in post to be able to work. Currently, there argon lobby groups and organizations which are creating sense against alienation of homeless and mentally disabled people. However, more necessitate to be done in order to help reduce dependency and poverty among homeless and mentally challenged people.\r\nEmployment outcomes and Rural vs. Urban Employment Program Considerations Employment is a sum of money atom to the social economic development of an individual. For instance, a homeless person can be able to tin his living standa rds as a result. The job rate of homeless people in America accounts for astir(predicate) 26% (Cocozza & Skowyra, 2000). On the other hand, mentally challenged people can likewise be able to get well as a result of cost increased self esteem and acceptance by the society. In the United submits the usage of people with severe mental disabilities account for close to 15% (BJSSR, 1997). The establishment of US spends a lot of money in blow over out programs for homeless and mentally disabled people.\r\nIn this manner, there is destiny to rehabilitate homeless and mentally disabled people to be able to enter into the workforce and earn a living. However, the function rates in the urban places are oft developed compared to the sylvan areas. This calls for more betrothal organizations to be based in the rural areas. For instance vocational rehabilitation agencies should be farmd in rural areas. Discussion A Recovery-based foundation for Employment dish A retrieval b ased foundation for utilisation services plays and integral graphic symbol in the rehabilitation of homeless and severe cases of mentally challenged people.\r\nA recovery based foundation for participation services acts as a link between homeless and mentally challenged people and their employees (Mullins, 1997). On the other hand, a recovery foundation for trading also offers requirement advice to their clients. Consecutively, recovery based foundation has strategies which enhance employment for homeless and mentally challenged people. Hence, the regime subscribes to employ more recovery based foundations for employment services for homeless and mentally challenged people. Worker Role Recovery\r\nWhen homeless and mentally challenged people are integrated in the workforce, the rate of recovery is increased and so is their social economic status. In other rowing, integrating these penetrable groups in the workforce helps in making them to require objective and enhances th eir personality (Mullins, 1997). Worker role recovery is employed to enhance the process of integrating mentally challenged people in the workforce. at that place are supervisors who are set to analyze the progress of the mentally challenged individuals. In this manner, such individuals are helped in the process of desegregation in the workforce.\r\nFramework for providing employment services A hardened out strategy is studyed to provide employment for mentally challenged individuals. The first step is for an employment foundation to get in touch with the necessary social worker and integrate the homeless and mentally disabled people in the programs (Mullins, 1997). Hence, the employment service should have relevant information for the person who is mentally challenged. Supervisors are needed to determine that the recruits follow the laid out program. In this manner, recruits are sensitized on what is supposed to be done so that they can follow the instructions of their employe es.\r\nHence, the staff at the employment center should be diverse in personality to deal with all people. On the other hand, the manakin also en sure as shootings that people are not employ by employees because of their disabilities. For example some employees may dish out much work to homeless and mentally challenged people. Others may offer fewer incentives or use words to intimidate such people. Cultural and Environmental Considerations Consecutively, the employment framework is set in such a way that it is able to reach out the needs of diversity (Virginia, 1997).\r\nThis is because teaching a severely mentally challenged person a new language could be a bigger challenge. In this manner, it is significant for the employment agencies to use the advantage of diversity to get to reach out to their clients. Approaches to Employment for people with Serious noetic Illness There are various approaches to the employment of people with serious mental illnesses. These approaches ha ve been tailor-made to meet the needs of mentally challenged people and at the same time act as a lasting solution to unemployment problems.\r\ntransitional Employment Transitional employment is popularly known as TE and it encompasses the model of teaching mentally challenged people close the work they are supposed to do (David & John, 2004). In this manner mentally challenged people are able to do their work effectively. Consequently, TE helps mentally challenged people get the needed experience to feign into the competitive jobs. TE is time bound and by the end of the program those who persevere get declare for their efforts (David & John, 2004). In other words, TE programs are like achievements for the mentally challenged people.\r\n back up Employment Supported employment refers to employment of mentally challenged people with goose egg tolerance to discrimination (David & John, 2004). The process of back up employment starts with onsite support. In this stage people with disabilities are supported as healthy and not dysfunctional. This makes them tactile sensation like the rest of the people and integrating in the normal workforce is very easy. On the other hand, rejection policy is not supported at all. The alienation of mentally challenged people is highly discouraged in supported employment.\r\nSupported employment is a core ingredient in successful integration of individuals to the work force. The pact Vocational Model Program of cocky Community Treatment (PACT) is support provided in the friendship level (David & John, 2004). This benignant of support is about eliminating support not because the mentally challenged people need it. Hence mentally challenged people under this array are given the chance to work and carter for their needs. PACT vocational model is a successful means of facilitating successful employment of mentally challenged individuals. Individual side and Support\r\nIndividual placement support requires t hat a mentally challenged person gets integrated in a vocation directly (David & John, 2004). In the kind of vocation or employment placed in, the person is under supervision that like other people. Social enterprises and Affirmative Businesses Mentally challenged people have the ability to venture in any line of productses and sound successful. This is because mentally challenged people are also able to learn and this means that they can work just as other people do. Hence, social enterprises and assentient businesses can be used as major targets for employment.\r\nSelf-Employment Disability cannot be termed as inability. In this manner it should be noted that mentally challenged people also have the ability to get integrated in self employment. A mentally challenged person has the ability to maintain his/ her business with the necessary help. A timber about Supported Education Supported raising on the other hand plays an integral role in the lives of mentally challenged people (Phyllis, 1997). This is because mentally challenged people need to be taught just as other normal people to be able to be integrated in the community.\r\nSupported education is not done in seclusion but is done in a normal institution where other normal individuals are educated. The impact of homelessness on people with serious mental illnesses quest employment. Homelessness on people with serious mental illness who are seeking employment can be termed to be a challenging situation. Homelessness makes mentally challenged people seem assailable and not able to complete the tasks accorded to them. in this study many employees may dismiss them without even giving them a chance. The following are some of the challenges face by mentally challenged people in employment.\r\npersonal-Level Challenges Personal level challenges for mentally challenged people present themselves in many ways. For instance, mentally challenged people may have a hard time trying to get integrated in t he workforce (Phyllis, 1997). This is because their operational pelt along may be less compared to their normal mental process individuals. Program and Services Provider-Level Challenges Program and service provider level challenges come when the staffs are not patient role and polite enough. This makes it hard for the mentally challenged people to deliver pace with the employment training (Phyllis, 1997).\r\nOn the other hand, the programs being taught may not be intimately assimilated by the mentally challenged individuals. Addressing Challenges in Service Systems The challenges face in service systems are many and also there are several ways which can be used to deal with these challenges. One way to deal with these challenges can be through the government offering more financial support for such institutions. The enhancement of these institutions will come a long way in empowering mentally challenged people in the society.\r\nHelping People who are Homeless and get down Se rious Mental Illnesses Obtain Work There are many ways people who are homeless and with serious mental illnesses can be helped to integrate in the society and workforce. The following are some of the ways. Underlying Principles In helping homeless people with serious mental problems obtain work, it is important to first of all learn to appreciate them as part of the society. In this manner, any form of rejection is eliminated to ensure that mentally challenged people are treated with respect. On the other hand, training should be done in normal bases so that homeless mentally challenged people don’t feel discriminated.\r\nRejection or disfavour of any form should be avoided completely to enhance trust and self esteem of the mentally disabled people. Consequently, it is also important to ascertain their level of mental challenge (Phyllis, 1997). Key Services and Supports To make sure that programs for mentally challenged people work out successfully, there is need for provisi on of key services and supports. For instance, mentally challenged people are in dire need of services like housing to help the homeless ones get shelter (Phyllis, 1997). Hence, the government needs to redact in cheap housing to help homeless people to get shelter for themselves.\r\nConsequently, lobby groups need to sensitize the community against rejection of mentally challenged individuals in the society. This way, business people will not discriminate against mentally challenged individuals. On the other hand stereotypes created in the society because of disabilities would also be reduced significantly. Working with the State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency One way the challenge of mental disability is dealt with in the American society is through working with the state vocational rehabilitation agency.\r\nVR agency ensures that mentally challenged persons enjoy various benefits just like their normal counterparts. Purpose and oscilloscope of VR Services VR agency has various services to mentally challenged people. For instance, this group offers mentally disabled people with social security disability funds which help to raise their living standards (State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency, 2007). On the other hand, mentally disabled people have to work and gain benefits termed as gainful benefits.\r\n'