Thursday, January 31, 2019

Bad Coffee :: essays research papers

It was a cold and damp morning, the moisture stuck to skin like move to fly paper. The loud thud thud thud of the helicopters had awaken me from my trance, after(prenominal) two and one-half hours of sleep. I had risen just in cadence for a fresh cup of umber when all of the sudden a chopper touched down just outside the barracks kicking up all the debris and dirt it could find. The iniquity before had been a deuced one, the mortar blasts and screams of my fellow soldiers had kept me awake nearly all night. And how, my coffee had been ruined by the all-fired helicopter. I was in the worst short letter on Earth, Saigon, in 1968. Definitely the do by place at the wrong time. My orders were simple, so I thought. Meet up with a group of parking area Berets just outside of enemy lines, and go north to a belittled village controlled by American troops, we would get more information presently after we had arrived. That was it, just like king of the hill when I was kid. I met up with my partners in a joint called the favourable Money, a current run down place, the air filled with stale smoke and the olfactory property of plastic palm trees. Lets just say the Lucky Money had carry outn better days. Hell just four months ago bobsleigh Hope had occupied that vacant stage. The atmosphere was filled with tension. At the knock down of a pin the whole environment could erupt into total chaos, half the time shoot outs would start in the street just from punks tossing rocks around.The guys I met up with were worn down, not one of them had a good nights rest in at least a month, you could see it in their eyes. All they wanted was a ride home, and they were going to do anything and everything in their power to get home. The leader of the group, Colonel Jake Denton, had been here two damn years. He didnt have much to say except he missed his kids. The other three were all from Texas, but none of them knew severally other until the army put them together. The mou sy looking kid was from Dallas, and he always had a cigarette hanging from his lip, a sure brand of the stress that was building inside him, his name was Jon Weinhard.

The Bretton Woods System Essay -- Economics

The theme of this essay outlines two things. One, the key elements of Bretton woods formation and second, the characterisation of Bretton woods system by Ruggie as insert open-heartedism, and how far he succeeds in it. The Bretton woods system is widely referred to the transnational monetary regime, which prevailed from the end of the World War 2 until the early 1970s. later the end of the World War 2, the need of international monetary fabric to boost trade and economic growth and stability, was important. Taking its name from the website of the 1944 conference, attended by all forty-four allied nations the Bretton Woods system consisted of four key elements. First, to make a system in which individually member nation has to fix or peg his currency telephone replace rate against the gold or U.S. dollar, as the key currency. Secondly, the palliate transpose of currencies between countries at the established and fixed exchange rate positive or minus a one- percent margin. Thirdly, to create an institutional forum, so-called transnational Monetary Fund (IMF), for the international co-operation on money matters to set up, stabilize, and captivate over exchange rates. Fourth, to remove all the existing exchange controls change (protectionism) policies by the members, on the use of its currency for international trade. In fare the first scheme, as well as its later development and net demise, were directly dependent on the preferences and policies of its most powerful member, the United States. concord to John Gerard Ruggie, 1982, this Bretton woods system of monetary co-operation correspond the type of liberalism which modify domestic social economic stability along with a liberal trading order. He referred this system as embed... ...aracterised Bretton woods system as embedded liberalism to show how market forces were surrounded by social and governmental constraints. Embedded liberalism thus signifies a compromise between the excessive free international market economics and the excessive domestic protectionist policies. Ruggie embedded liberalism represented an enclosed international liberal trade within the post-war consensus of fixed exchange rates and capital controls. The fixed exchange rate helped to promote abiding liberal trade by removing any future uncertainty in exchange rate movements. Whereas for domestic social and economic stability, national government would use capital controls. All these practices were the key elements of Bretton woods system and too constitute the institution of embedded liberalism. Hence, Bretton woods system can be characterised as embedded liberalism.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Shakespeare Theme Essay

A. P. Literature How does Shakespeare express theme by dint of language? Shakespeare, an extraordinary writer, uses many another(prenominal) literary techniques which prove his mastery of English. His near fascinating technique however, is displaying theme done language. In his play juncture, Shakespeare uses language to address existential dilemma, truth, and death. These themes significantly shape small town into the masterpiece it is. In his play, Shakespeare expresses existential dilemma done juncture. villages breeding so far has gone roughly in a prohibit direction.His father, the King of Hamlet, has passed away and disappointingly, Hamlet comes back to a crowd that is energetic acknowledging the new king, Claudius, and is forgetting ab show up the death of his father. Shakespeare uses language to express theme through and through and through Hamlets soliloquy, To be, or not to be. In his soliloquy, Hamlet asks himself whether he should kill himself, or keep going. Hamlet illustrates the strain that many people feel at one point or another, the humanity is just too much. Another theme that Shakespeare expresses in his play through language is truth. For a madman such as Hamlet, he is jolly intent on getting his facts straight.Hamlet wants to be sure Claudius is his fathers murderer before he takes any drastic action. After being enraged by his fathers speech, Hamlet tries to find out the truth. In Act 3, Scene 2, Hamlet stages a play called mousetrap, which portrays the death scene his father described. During that scene, Hamlet intends to watch Claudius to see if he expresses guilt. Through language, Shakespeare shows truth. Hamlet goes to huge measures of finding out what is true expressing a view that believing if another is honest is a matter of great trust, or great naivete. Lastly, Shakespeare expresses through language the theme of death.In Shakespeares play, Hamlet encounters death through his fathers ghost, and in Poloniuss and Op helias demises. These run ins prompt Hamlet to look at death through different angles. For instance, the ghost of his father causes Hamlet to think about the spiritual aftermath of death. After Poloniuss death in Act 4, Hamlet compares death to the Worm that ate the kings corpse, that might be used to catch a fish to feed a pauperize. In other words, Shakespeare comments that death is a great equalizer, or as a stepping stone to truth away from an ambiguous dishonest world.Hamlet is a play that strongly represents the themes of the world through the language of art. Shakespeare enforces his views of the world through events that can be decoded into many messages. With just a few characters and occurrences, Shakespeare is subject to illustrate themes such as existential dilemma, truth, and death. Through its many knowing themes, Hamlet can be considered an outline of the treacherous world we see in. If you take anything for granted, or trust everything you hear, your path will be come a difficult one.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Cell bio lab report Essay

PurposeDuring this experiment we compared the hem agglutination answer of control find out A solution at 2 mg/ml in teach A buffer with the hemagglutination answer of your own purified study A sample that you diluted previously at 2 mg/ml in Con A buffer. The purpose of this lab was to fix the strength of the reaction by performing serial dilutions on both(prenominal) the Con A sample and the control Con A sample, and tick off through and through observations whether or non addition of brain sugar or mannose leave behind inhibit this reaction. I hypothesize that the Con A + galactose solutions leave alone have partial tone agglutination and partial no agglutination, and the Con A + mannose solutions will have every(prenominal) no agglutination.ResultsRows A and B had half(prenominal) agglutination and half no agglutination, while row C had all no agglutination. Row D had half agglutination and half partial agglutination, while row E had 4 columns with agglutination and 8 columns with no agglutination. Row F had complete agglutination throughout. Con A reaction plate (Row/Column)ReactionA1-A6 (Control) agglutination/ holdA7-A12 (Control)No agglutination/not inhibitB1-B6 (Con A + galactose)Agglutination/inhibitedB7-B12 (Con A + galactose)No Agglutination/not inhibitedC1-C12 (Con A + mannose)No Agglutination/not inhibitedD1-D5 (Sample)Agglutination/inhibitedD6-D12 (Sample)Partial agglutination/inhibitedE1-E4 (Con A + galactose)Agglutination/inhibitedE5-E12 (Con A + galactose)No Agglutination/not inhibitedF1-F12 (Con A + mannose)No agglutination/not inhibitedG1-G12 ((-)Control)Partial agglutination/inhibitedH1-H12 (RBCs)Partial agglutination/inhibitedDiscussionMy hypothesis was proven correct, the Con A + galactose solutions did have partial agglutination and partial no agglutination, and the Con A + mannose solutions did have all no agglutination. This means that in the Con A + galactose solutions the ones that had agglutination the red cells aggr egated with the lectin and depositary in the form of a uniform layer that covered the full bottom of the well including the slopes, and in the Con A + mannose solutions the ones that failed to have agglutination take place covered only part of the bottom. We found through this experiment that the control Con A sample and the Con A sample had very similar strengths of reaction.ConclusionIn this experiment through serial dilutions on a 96 well plate we immovable the strength of the each reaction on both the Con A sample and the control sample. We found through our experiment that the addition of galactose or mannose will partially inhibit or inhibit the reaction between our Con A sample and control Con A sample.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

What Is a Moratorium On Foreclosures

The mortgage crisis in America is a political hot discipline that has taken a front seat to many other fields of content importance. Even the upcoming presidential election has the potential of having this very topic at the center of each candidates agenda. However, with a bet of such national significance it would appear as though all(prenominal) most Americans seem to know is that the economy is bad and that about covers it. some Americans argon un advised of this economic crisis occurring and are even less aware of how it could affect them. Therefore, the apathetic and ignorant attitude towards such a predicament could be explained.In order to assist in the eradication of this issue, unmatch equal to(p) must examine the meaning of a mortgage and that will better the reason as to why foreclosures are occurring throughout the country. Furthermore, with this base understanding of this food market we readiness better understand why Congressional and nation legislators wish to place a moratorium, or temporary freeze, to the current foreclosure emergency. What is a Mortgage? First, lets examine what a mortgage is. harmonize to the Freddie Mac lending agency a mortgage is, a spleen on a dimension/house that secures a contri scarcelye and is paying(a) in installments over a set period of time.The mortgage secures your look for that youll repay the money youve borrowed to buy your home. There are also several(prenominal) types of mortgages available through lending agencies as well. Some of the following are the primary options available fixed rate, adjustable rate, balloon/reset, reverse, and the hottest one that is cosmos talked about the subprime mortgage. This is the one that should be hit on most heavily because this is the reason for the foreclosure crisis occurring right now.The paradox with subprime mortgage lending is the fact that a subprime lender is predatory in nature, much like a loan shark. These companies prey on those who cannot receive a mortgage through mainstream companies as a resolve of poor credit or and/or a number of other factors. These companies then charge very high invade rates on the mortgages they resist to consumers. These interest rates are position on the principle of the loan and essentially the individual paying on the loan will have to pay on the interest in lieu of the principle for a very long period of time. check to Reuters, The crisis surrounding subprime mortgages extended to borrowers with spotty credit can unnerve financial markets and could commute a slump in the U. S. housing market that some economists maintenance could put the economy close to a recession. What is a Foreclosure? Second, Foreclosures occur when an borrower or owner of a parcel of property or home defaults on a loan payment, such as a mortgage payment, and the lender files a default notice, whereby a bank or mortgage confederacy repossesses they property in question and the owner/borrower looses whateve r rights he/she might have had prior to the default.The problem with foreclosing on individuals property today is that there are a plethora of people in America that are defaulting on their mortgage payments as a result of the slowing economy, predatory lending, credit card debt the list is endless. If the mortgage companies foreclosed on all those defaulting, there would be more homeless Americans than in U. S. history. What Is the Proposed solving? Finally, lets examine what has been proposed as a solution to the problem of foreclosures as a result of extended mortgages to borrowers, as it stands.The U. S. government is attempting to gene a deal with mortgage lenders to assist troubled borrowers with defaulting on their mortgage payments. However, many lawmakers also would like to see a moratorium occur freezing all foreclosures so that financially-troubled borrowers can have some time to confirm from losing their homes. Lawmakers believe this action will not only assist borro wers, but it will also help to stabilize the economy and the housing market as a result of homeowners having time to accrue equity.Furthermore, lawmakers have proposed to extend more than five billion dollars to the hardest-hit communities so that homeowners might be able to cope a little easier with the crisis. Florida, Nevada, California, Michigan and Ohio are key evidence in next years elections as well as some of the hardest-hit as a result of the mortgage crisis. With lawmakers steering at the helm for a solution to one of the greatest financial questions since the spectacular Depression all one can do is waiting to see what the next administration will do to assist with the issue at hand.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Kingdoms of Egypt and Nubia Essay

Historians once position that the hu composition race began with the white Greek and Romans. Present day archaeologists are telling us that the cradle of civilization is in the Nile Valley of Africa. cardinal rival kingdoms called Egypt and Nubia call for much in common but they in like manner have their unique differences. In my essay I will search some of these similarities and differences.Egypt and Nubia were both(prenominal) ruled by monarchy, which shows that they had an advanced form of policy-making organization. Archeologists findings show that the symbols of Nubian royalty are the same as those of Egyptian Kings. They believed that they were god-Kings and built large pyramids to spend eternity surrounded by there riches to keep them comfortable after death. The difference mingled with the Egyptian and the Nubian monarchy is that the Egyptian monarchies were all staminate rulers but Nubians monarchies were both male and female and held power jointly.Egypt and Nubia both changed with other countries to acquire the goods they desired. Egypt had few indispensable resources but was involved in manufacturing glass, paper, perfume, cosmetics and fine linen fabric. Egypt wanted to trade these for the different products from Central Africa. Nubia had many natural resources such as gold, ivory, copper, frankincense, campaign ore, hardwood timber, ostrich feathers, leopard skins and elephants. Nubia traded these along with their pottery and manufactured goods. The powerful, wealthy black Nubians Kings controlled the trade routes between central Africa and Egypt, which is one reason why Egypt eventually attacked and conquered Nubia.Egyptians and Nunians both believed in the god-Amun (the ram-head god). The Egyptians thought the silhouette of the mountain at Gebel Barkel looked like a cobras head which is a sign of royal power. They believed that the god-Amun lived there so they built a tabernacle to him. Thus, its considered to be a hallowed mountai n, perhaps the holiest place in the Nile valley. It is where the pharaohs held their crowning ceremonies. The Nubians also believed the god-Amun lived in the mountain. When they conquered Egypt they called on the authority of the god-Amun. This was confirmed when archaeologists found a curving of a man making an offering to the god-Amun in the remains of a large tabernacle in Nubia.Both the Egyptians and the Nubians had a system of writing to record measurable events in their history. The Egyptians used picture publications called hieroglyphs that they curved on the temple walls and on tablets describing events in their lives. The Nubians used an rudiment called meroitic. Historians are hoping to understand this alphabet so that they will be able to read the Nubians writings and discover more about their culture.It is clear that the early African plurality were a politically organized, intelligent industrious, creative and civilized people righteous of our respect. Probably , due to racial prejudice, it was once thought that black Africans were not capable of producing high civilization. Nubia, the homeland of the earliest black culture may have been the home of the first human race on earth.BibliographyEdward Reynolds (1994) Focus on Africa D.C. Health and company. CanadaWho are the Nubians? (Date N/A). Homestead. October 23, 2006.http//www.homestead.com/wysinger/nubians.htmlJamila, White. (1999). Black Kingdoms of the Nile episode 2. PBS. October 23, 2006http//www.pbs.org/wonders/Episodes/Epi1/1_wondr4.htmJimmy Dunn (Copyright 1999-2003). The Yam of Egypts Old Kingdom. Tour Egypt. October 23, 2006. http//www.touregypt.net/featurestories/yam.htm

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Labeling Theory

path capitulum Labeling opening Labeling Theory Stacie OReilly Miller-Motte Lisa Bruno October 20, 2012 Abstract According to the works of uncivil Tannenbaum, Howard Becker, Edwin Lemert and the Labeling Theory, charge criminals be ofttimes created by our juvenile cleanice strategy and by our society and their labeling of juveniles who hold been convicted of committing a deviant act. These youngsters be a good deal label as juvenile delinquents. The Labeling, not the juveniles characteristics, back create a universal offender. Labeling TheoryFrank Tannenbaum, also known as the Grandfather of the Labeling Theory, in 1938, wrote against public beliefs that juvenile delinquents were different in m each a(prenominal) expressive styles than non-delinquents and that they were spate who commensurate into where they were placed by society and the juvenile justice system. This conceit is the outgrowth of the Labeling Theory in criminology and sociology, known as Dramatiz ing Evil. Tannenbaums subscriber line was that 0 When they first break the law, the juvenile is a microscopical or no different in characteristics than his peers. Youths who ar tagged naughtiness pull up stakes be treated differently than their peers who argon not denominate as bad. 2 They may believe their label and be acquit as they believe they should. As the youths argon labeled, they may no perennial be real by their peers but testament gladly be veritable by other outcasts. This is the beginnings of the labeling theory. Edwin Lemert, sociologist, contributed to the Labeling Theory by arguing that every last(predicate) quite a little conduct deviant behavior occasion every last(predicate)y and if caught any somebody could, by reaction of society and the criminal justice system, be abeled as a delinquent. Lemert studied and recorded the series of horizontalts that hind end result from the mavin ensuant. To interrupt explain the labeling process he uses old a nd Secondary deviation. Primary discrepancy is the first delinquent act the psyche gets caught performing. Secondary de parcelure is depict by Lemert as any deviant act affiliated as a result of the labeling of the somebody due to the Primary Deviance. Howard Becker in the 1960s ch angstromi unityd the Labeling Theory, explaining ocial groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction creates deviance, and by applying those roles to particular the great unwashed and labeling them as outsiders. From this blockage of check, deviance is not a whole t champion of the act the mortal commits, but rather a end of the practical application by other of rules and sanctions to an offender. The deviant is genius to whom that label has been successfully use deviant behavior is behavior that masses so label. Becker In todays society, labeling lot be as harmful as ever and house give to a juvenile who has not even been convicted of any price doing.Before a defendant has a prognosis to face his accuser, society is exploitation a label for him/her. In our criminal justice system, a soulfulness provoke be stop consonanted if it is thought, by the authorities, that the incriminate had committed a abuse. The accused is taken into custody, finger printed and a photo taken as part of the arrest process. Todays media and technology protagonist the labeling process along, often pre-maturely. There argon safeguards to nurture juveniles from the exposure, but these protections stop at the tender age of 18, just as these young people are trying to find their way.Once mortal is arrested, his/her brand triggerman, along with the crime they are charged with becomes public, often in the topical anesthetic anaesthetic newspaper and on the internet. This information also becomes part of the accuseds reach check. I aim canvassed average citizens and businesses to understand what effects this exposure quarter have on young people applying for work and in general, in other words, the effects of labeling on decisions of people interacting with the persons who are labeled, which will touch on the way the labeled person will begin to view himself/herself.In the grade shot survey, the labeled are not labeled officially and not even convicted of a crime, however they are viewed by strangers by the photos of themselves post in the crime sections of newspapers and websites. The answers to the survey questions are harsher than expected 0 Would you absorb mortal you latterly saying in the local anaesthetic seagull shots? The answers were in fourfold choice formats and are as follows- no, probably not, probably, or yes. Of the persons surveyed, 26. 7% responded no, 53. 3% responded probably not, 20% responded probably and no one responded yes. Would you deliver your stripling to duration mortal you latterly saw in your local mug shots? With the uniform four choices for answers, 60% answered no. 26. 7% responded probabl y not, 20% responded probably, and no one answered yes. 0 Would you olfactory modality golden walking next to mortal you deep seen in the local mug shots? Having the equal answering options as the preceding(prenominal) questions, 6. 7% answered no, 13. 3% answered probably not, 66. 7% responded with probably and 13. 3% answered yes. The above numbers show how negatively people are thought of later an ensure with the law, regardless of guilt or innocence.This must be sheer to the person being labeled silently by those in his/her community, the sermon get may have a major impact on his/her self-image and they may accept this view as true and will be accepted by others in the same situation. Felons, by definition, are those people who have been convicted of a serious crime. These convictions can be of many things from cabal to rape, yet are assort together with a blade that can turn the labeled person into the monster he/she is often viewed as by others. Once labeled a turn, a person may lose hope of overcoming a delinquent aside one event can accept to this negative label. A person who is labeled a shepherds crook is treated differently by society, they are labeled by an event and any achievements and good behavior up to that point is disregarded, many rights are taken away from outlaws and restrictions applied. With the exception of Vermont and Maine, Felons and ex-Felons are confine from voting in the United States. 0 Federal legal philosophy prohibits those labeled Felons to bear arms.These two basic rights that twists do not enthrall are clear signs of the way that society views them as dangerous and not worthy. This is fortify with every job application that they fill out, repeatedly, they must tell apart that they are a felon, and felons can be anyone convicted of drug possession to murder, all grouped together. Young people who are labeled as Felons are ostracized and have a hard time finding commerce, which can lead to them pe rsuasion they are not worthy, accepting the label, and turning to a life story of crime for survival.I created a survey to get a quick view from people who would potentially interact with felons to see how they would respond to a felon in different percentage. The way the felon is responded to by society can help the felon view himself as he is viewed others. The answers to the survey questions are as expected 0 Would you hire a convicted felon? The answers were in duple choice formats and are as follows- no, probably not, probably, or yes. Of the persons surveyed, 20% responded no, 60% responded probably not, 20% responded probably and no one responded yes. 0 Would you allow your adolescent to come across a convicted felon?With the same four choices for answers, nose candy% answered no. 0 Would you tactile property lucky working closely with a convicted felon? Having the same answering options as the above questions, 0% answered no, and 80% answered probably not, 20% respond ed with probably and no one answered yes. The results show the difficulty a felon will have being rehabilitated while being feared and unwanted by fellow traveler citizens. The label is devastating to a convicted felon with little chance of employment which is a major part of gaining self-esteem and confidence to pound much(prenominal) a harsh stigma.Without even knowing what the felon was convicted of and any circumstances involved, the communitys children are off limits to those unfortunate enough to have earn this label. orderliness still labels young people sometimes by one incident which shows only the possibility that the person broke the law and this is not official, it is indirect, with the media. When an official label like felon is used, it is even more foul to the person inflicted, because the laws directed to them go hand in hand with how strangers and acquaintances come along to be viewing Would you hire someone you recently saw in the local mug shots?Would you hire someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? them. Would you allow your stripling to leave someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you allow your teenager to date someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you tint comfortable walking next to someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you feel comfortable walking next to someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you allow your teenager to date a convicted felon? Would you allow your teenager to date a convicted felon? Would you hire a convicted felon?Would you hire a convicted felon? Would you feel comfortable working closely with a convicted felon? Would you feel comfortable working closely with a convicted felon? References OReilly, S. (n. d. ). Felons Survey. SurveyMonkey Free online survey packet & questionnaire tool. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http//www. surveymonkey. com/s/K3MZSKJ OReilly, S. (n. d. ). Mug shots Survey. SurveyMonkey Free online survey p arcel & questionnaire tool. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http//www. surveymonkey. com/s/5T8MQYL Parmelee, M. (1918).Criminology, by Maurice Parmelee . New York The Macmillan Company. Regoli, R. M. , Hewitt, J. D. , & DeLisi, M. (2008). Sociological Theory Labeling and involvement Explanations. Delinquency in society youth crime in the twenty-first century (7th ed. , pp. 222-248). Boston, MA McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Siegel, L. J. (2010). Criminology theories, patterns, and typologies (10th ed. ). Belmont, CA Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. Vito, G. F. , & Holmes, R. M. (1994). Criminology theory, research, and policy. Belmont, Calif. Wadsworth Pub. Co..Labeling TheoryRunning Head Labeling Theory Labeling Theory Stacie OReilly Miller-Motte Lisa Bruno October 20, 2012 Abstract According to the works of Frank Tannenbaum, Howard Becker, Edwin Lemert and the Labeling Theory, career criminals are often created by our juvenile justice system and by our society and their lab eling of juveniles who have been convicted of committing a deviant act. These youngsters are often labeled as juvenile delinquents. The Labeling, not the juveniles characteristics, can create a habitual offender. Labeling TheoryFrank Tannenbaum, also known as the Grandfather of the Labeling Theory, in 1938, wrote against popular beliefs that juvenile delinquents were different in many ways than non-delinquents and that they were people who fit into where they were placed by society and the juvenile justice system. This concept is the beginning of the Labeling Theory in criminology and sociology, known as Dramatizing Evil. Tannenbaums argument was that 0 When they first break the law, the juvenile is a little or no different in characteristics than his peers. Youths who are labeled bad will be treated differently than their peers who are not labeled as bad. 2 They may believe their label and exculpate as they believe they should. As the youths are labeled, they may no longer be acce pted by their peers but will gladly be accepted by other outcasts. This is the beginnings of the labeling theory. Edwin Lemert, sociologist, contributed to the Labeling Theory by arguing that all people conduct deviant behavior occasionally and if caught any person could, by reaction of society and the criminal justice system, be abeled as a delinquent. Lemert studied and recorded the series of events that can result from the one incident. To better explain the labeling process he uses Primary and Secondary deviation. Primary Deviation is the first delinquent act the person gets caught performing. Secondary Deviance is described by Lemert as any deviant act committed as a result of the labeling of the person due to the Primary Deviance. Howard Becker in the 1960s championed the Labeling Theory, explaining ocial groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction creates deviance, and by applying those roles to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by other of rules and sanctions to an offender. The deviant is one to whom that label has been successfully applied deviant behavior is behavior that people so label. Becker In todays society, labeling can be as harmful as ever and can happen to a juvenile who has not even been convicted of any wrong doing.Before a defendant has a chance to face his accuser, society is developing a label for him/her. In our criminal justice system, a person can be arrested if it is thought, by the authorities, that the accused had committed a crime. The accused is taken into custody, finger printed and a photo taken as part of the arrest process. Todays media and technology help the labeling process along, often pre-maturely. There are safeguards to protect juveniles from the exposure, but these protections stop at the tender age of 18, just as these young people are trying to find their way. Once someone is arrested, his/her mug shot, along with the crime they are charged with becomes public, often in the local newspaper and on the internet. This information also becomes part of the accuseds background check. I have surveyed average citizens and businesses to understand what effects this exposure can have on young people applying for work and in general, in other words, the effects of labeling on decisions of people interacting with the persons who are labeled, which will affect the way the labeled person will begin to view himself/herself.In the mug shot survey, the labeled are not labeled officially and not even convicted of a crime, however they are viewed by strangers by the photos of themselves posted in the crime sections of newspapers and websites. The answers to the survey questions are harsher than expected 0 Would you hire someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? The answers were in multiple choice formats and are as follows- no, probably not, probably , or yes. Of the persons surveyed, 26. 7% responded no, 53. 3% responded probably not, 20% responded probably and no one responded yes. Would you allow your teenager to date someone you recently saw in your local mug shots? With the same four choices for answers, 60% answered no. 26. 7% responded probably not, 20% responded probably, and no one answered yes. 0 Would you feel comfortable walking next to someone you recently seen in the local mug shots? Having the same answering options as the above questions, 6. 7% answered no, 13. 3% answered probably not, 66. 7% responded with probably and 13. 3% answered yes. The above numbers show how negatively people are thought of after an encounter with the law, regardless of guilt or innocence.This must be apparent to the person being labeled silently by those in his/her community, the treatment received may have a major impact on his/her self-image and they may accept this view as true and will be accepted by others in the same situation. F elons, by definition, are those people who have been convicted of a serious crime. These convictions can be of many things from conspiracy to rape, yet are grouped together with a stigma that can turn the labeled person into the monster he/she is often viewed as by others. Once labeled a felon, a person may lose hope of overcoming a delinquent past one event can lead to this negative label. A person who is labeled a felon is treated differently by society, they are labeled by an event and any achievements and good behavior up to that point is disregarded, many rights are taken away from felons and restrictions applied. With the exception of Vermont and Maine, Felons and ex-Felons are restricted from voting in the United States. 0 Federal Law prohibits those labeled Felons to bear arms.These two basic rights that felons do not enjoy are clear signs of the way that society views them as dangerous and not worthy. This is reinforced with every job application that they fill out, repeate dly, they must acknowledge that they are a felon, and felons can be anyone convicted of drug possession to murder, all grouped together. Young people who are labeled as Felons are ostracized and have a hard time finding employment, which can lead to them thinking they are not worthy, accepting the label, and turning to a life of crime for survival.I created a survey to get a quick view from people who would potentially interact with felons to see how they would respond to a felon in different circumstances. The way the felon is responded to by society can help the felon view himself as he is viewed others. The answers to the survey questions are as expected 0 Would you hire a convicted felon? The answers were in multiple choice formats and are as follows- no, probably not, probably, or yes. Of the persons surveyed, 20% responded no, 60% responded probably not, 20% responded probably and no one responded yes. 0 Would you allow your teenager to date a convicted felon?With the same fou r choices for answers, 100% answered no. 0 Would you feel comfortable working closely with a convicted felon? Having the same answering options as the above questions, 0% answered no, and 80% answered probably not, 20% responded with probably and no one answered yes. The results show the difficulty a felon will have being rehabilitated while being feared and unwanted by fellow citizens. The label is devastating to a convicted felon with little chance of employment which is a major part of gaining self-esteem and confidence to overcome such a harsh stigma.Without even knowing what the felon was convicted of and any circumstances involved, the communitys children are off limits to those unfortunate enough to have earned this label. Society still labels young people sometimes by one incident which shows only the possibility that the person broke the law and this is not official, it is indirect, through the media. When an official label like felon is used, it is even more detrimental to the person inflicted, because the laws directed to them go hand in hand with how strangers and acquaintances seem to be viewing Would you hire someone you recently saw in the local mug shots?Would you hire someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? them. Would you allow your teenager to date someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you allow your teenager to date someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you feel comfortable walking next to someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you feel comfortable walking next to someone you recently saw in the local mug shots? Would you allow your teenager to date a convicted felon? Would you allow your teenager to date a convicted felon? Would you hire a convicted felon?Would you hire a convicted felon? Would you feel comfortable working closely with a convicted felon? Would you feel comfortable working closely with a convicted felon? References OReilly, S. (n. d. ). Felons Survey. SurveyMonkey F ree online survey software & questionnaire tool. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http//www. surveymonkey. com/s/K3MZSKJ OReilly, S. (n. d. ). Mug shots Survey. SurveyMonkey Free online survey software & questionnaire tool. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http//www. surveymonkey. com/s/5T8MQYL Parmelee, M. (1918).Criminology, by Maurice Parmelee . New York The Macmillan Company. Regoli, R. M. , Hewitt, J. D. , & DeLisi, M. (2008). Sociological Theory Labeling and Conflict Explanations. Delinquency in society youth crime in the 21st century (7th ed. , pp. 222-248). Boston, MA McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Siegel, L. J. (2010). Criminology theories, patterns, and typologies (10th ed. ). Belmont, CA Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. Vito, G. F. , & Holmes, R. M. (1994). Criminology theory, research, and policy. Belmont, Calif. Wadsworth Pub. Co..

Monday, January 21, 2019

Affirmative Action: Preferential Treatment Essay

During the college process, educatees ar advised in multiple ship apprizeal on how to properly present themselves to draw the appeal of colleges. Whether it is by highlight their awards, accomplishments or talents, pupils are constantly working on improving their resume. They were told that with frank grades, extracurricular activities, and heart-warming es hypothecates that they would find success in cosmos admitted into a esteemed university. However, there are various early(a) factors that determine whether genius is legitimate or denied. An important and often scrutinized factor is the use of favorable follow up in entrances. While affirmative execute should not hold the weight it does in approachs currently, it seems that people are unaware of the other preferential treatments precondition to certain assimilators. Afrmative follow up in favor of underrepresented minorities has been a controversial proposition debated and scrutinized by scholars, the media, an d the commonplace for many years.Two other preferential admissions programs hasten been less controversial still in widespread use one involving giving an admissions acclivity to applicants with athletic skills and the other one to children of alumni, comm lone(prenominal) know as legacies. As these various categories suggest, entry into selective institutions of higher command has neer been decided purely on academic criteriabefore or after nonage afrmative deed came into loading. As the term affirmative natural process encompasses the ideal that institutions promote diversity and growth by including historically excluded hosts in their admissions, legacy admissions and athletic admissions are considered affirmative. (Massey and Mooney 99-117) They do originate from genuinely variant motivations, but they bring non-academic criteria that impact the admissions process.Therefore, by attaching the label afrmative meet to legacy and athletic admissions, it is deliberately underscoring the fact that minorities are not the only social group to benefit from such(prenominal) a policy. Supporters of affirmative doing claim that minority school-age childs, generally speaking, start out at a dis proceeds in their college or job application process. They usually tote up from lower income families and, in turn, become fewer opportunities than those who go to private inform. somewhat inner city youths had grown up in environments filled with crime, violence, and discouragement. Genuine, hard-working minority disciples are every bit as capable as clean-living students, but because of these dis goods, they may not assume the same paper qualifications. approving follow through evens the playing field a bit. (Massey and Mooney 99-117) noetheless, it was designed to end discrimination and un handsome treatment of employees/students based on color, but it in effect does the opposite.Whites who work harder and/or are more(prenominal) qualified can be pa ssed over strictly because they are white. Contrary to many stereotypes, many minorities feed into the middle or upper class, and many whites endure in poverty. (Fletcher) Unfortunately, the flair occasions are set up now, a poverty-stricken white student who uses discipline and hard work to become the best he can be can be passed over by a fat minority student who doesnt put in much feat at all. Supporters also claim that some stereotypes may never be broken without affirmative action. For decades blacks were considered less capable than whites. It took affirmative action to give out blacks the opportunity to show they are every bit as capable. However, if you were to look Colin Powell, Barack Obama, or Oprah Winfrey how they got to where they today, I doubt they would respond with affirmative action. (Fletcher) It sets the idea that a minority cannot achieve full potential without the help of affirmative action and undermines their own abilities.Another claim supporters of affirmative use is that it draws people to places they would never have gone elsewise, bringing under-privileged students to Ivy League institution. But if a student is admitted on a lower basis, he will have less incentive to do well or have the unfitness to keep up with the work. Why work for that 4.0 GPA when he got in with sub-par grades? In this way, affirmative action is likened to students who are accustomed a boost for being legacies, having a parent(s) attend the school previously. A survey conducted by H. M. Breland found that afrmative action for children of alumni is practiced widely at some(prenominal) public and private institutions (Howell and food turner 325-351). A later survey conducted by Daniel rosy (2003) revealed that 23 part of freshmen enrolled at zero(prenominal)re Dame were the children of alumni, with corresponding gures of 14 pct at Penn, 13 percent at Harvard, 11 percent at Princeton, and 11 percent at the University of Virginia (Howell and Turner 325-351).These topics seem to be relatively modest however, they belie the relatively small amount of applicants legacies hold. When documenting the number of applicants, it is easily seen that children of alumni benefit from greater admissions rates. According to studies by William G. Bowen and Derek Bok (1998), legacies had a devil to one admissions advantage over non-legacies. Likewise, Cameron Howell and Sarah E. Turner (2004) document a resembling advantage at the University of Virginia, where only 32 percent of regular applicants were admitted compared with 57 percent of alumni children. As a result, the freshman class of 2002 was 7 percent legacy, compared with 3 percent African American, even though the state is 20 percent black. (Massey and Mooney 99-117)The unfairness that follows legacy admissions is what many feel towards affirmative action as well. By giving blacks/Hispanics an obvious advantage in the admissions process, it breeds saddle sore and underestimation of them. In the same way legacies are generalized as dumb rich kids, recipients of affirmative action are seen as undeserving. (Massey and Mooney 99-117) It seems to say that they wouldnt have been able to be admitted into the school elsewise, thus change magnitude the pressure put onto these students.The consequences translate to students being unable to call the workload. By turning away highly qualified Asian/white students in favor of less qualified black/Hispanic students, it is not fair for either race. According to Dr. Richard Sander, professor of Law at UCLA, blacks are cardinal and a half cartridge clips more likely than whites not to down and are tetrad times more likely to fail the blackball exam on the first try. (Fletcher) To fulfill their thirst for diversity, colleges often introduce students from below the median. As a result, they are ill equipped to handle the pressures of such a rigorous school and have a smaller determine of graduating.It is not to say that affirmative action is not driveed. A homogenous population would make for an unproductive and unmoving student body. mixed bag is needed for growth and experiences that differ. In this way, you can see the web advantage of affirmative action over legacy admissions. Despite affirmative action being flawed, the advantage is at least presumption to, who is supposed to be, the disfavor party. Legacy admissions should have no place in the college admissions world. It is giving an advantage to students who are probably are not in great need of it if their parents attended a prestigious university Supporters of legacy admissions claim that donations from alumni contribute to build renovations and technological upgrades, as well as supporting financial encourage programs for many financially disadvantaged students. (Golden) Legacy students are also mind to better understand the sense of tradition of the university and embody the values that the university has traditionally supp orted.That sounds good, but how true is it? Three elite schools that are big on legacy preferences Harvard, Princeton, and Yale rank near the bottom when it comes to the percentage of students from poorer families they have, according to Professor Jerome Karabel in his book The Chosen The Hidden History of Admission and projection at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. (Steinberg) Good students from poor families are often deprived of admission because of the legacy tradition they are less frequently helped by the spare funds that the legacy tradition brings to the school. Contrary to what legacy defenders argue, it is doubtful that move legacy preferences has any significant impact on donations to a university.Texas A&M and the University of Georgia are among the large universities that have neglectful legacy preferences and neither has suffered a detectable decline in support. (Howell and Turner 325-351) In addition, Massey and Mooney found that, In schools with a stronger com mitment to legacy admissions, the children of alumni were more likely to drop out. Ironically, the only evidence we find of a skills couple is for the children of alumni.The greater the gap mingled with a legacy students SAT and the institutional second-rate SAT, the lower the grades he or she gain, though the effect size was modest. (99-117) They compared the number of hours studied per week, the psychological performance upshot reported by students, grades earned by students done the end of their sophomore year, and the likelihood of students dropping out of school by spring of their junior-grade year. The study concluded that legacies who were given a greater admissions bonus earned lower grades once admitted, a fact which surprised many, including some admissions officials. (99-117)However, although affirmative action and legacy treatment are both found to be large non-academic factors in the college admissions process, athletic skill is one often overlooked and not discu ssed. It is common knowledge that the number of students who excel in both academics and athletics is too small for schools to fill spots with only student athletes who meet usual admissions standards. Athletes were shown to have had a 48% better chance of admission than regular students with resembling academic achievements in high school and similar standardized turn out score in studies done during 1999. In comparison, legacies, bore only a 25% better chance of admission and minorities stood only an 18% better chance of admission. (Ferris, Finster, and McDonald 555-575)The simplest method to view the different standards used for recruited athletes is to acknowledge the statistics of Division I athletes in high pen sports, such as football and basketball at public universities. These students have SAT lots that average almost 250 points than their non-athletic counterparts. While not as extreme, athletes participating in other sports such as golf, tennis, and swimming average about 100 points less than regular students on standardized block out scores. (Dolinsky) The way that a majority of these student athletes gain admissions is through finical admit programs designed by the school to accept a group of applicants who do not meet the standard criteria.From 2003 to 2006, more than half of the redundant admits scholarship athletes at San Diego State University had lower standardized test scores and high school GPAs than other admitted students. In the San Diego State admissions process, students with insufficient authentication may be accepted based on other factors such as socioeconomic clog upground, local residency, and other special talents. However, between choke 2003 and spring 2006, of the 248 special admit students admitted by San Diego State, only 105 were given admission intentionally. The rest of the students granted admission had been the result of various touch on errors and of those 105 that were given intentional admission, they were all athletes. (Ferris, Finster, and McDonald 555-575)If there is one thing that is clear, it is that the preferential treatment given to athletes in the admissions process does have its consequences. one(a) potential consequence of admitting student athletes with academic credentials below their peers is the luck of academic underperformance by these athletes. (Dolinsky) Similar to those shown with students of affirmative action, statistics are clear in showcasing that athletes are underperforming once they arrive on college campuses. Recently, as more athletes got into schools through advantages in the admissions process, their collegiate GPAs began to suffer, with a majority of athletes placing in the bottom quartern of their classes. In contrast, only 9% of athletes finish in the top tercet of their class. (Espenshade, Chung, and skirting 14221446)To further exhibit the correlation between preferential treatment in the admissions process and academic underperformance, a study shows that student athletes generally distinguish so-called easy majorssuch as social sciences instead than the harder majors such as math, science, and engineering. One argument for explaining academic underperformance, other than the fact that athletes arrive at college with noticeably lower academic credentials, is that student athletes face the rigors and responsibilities of playing a sport, practicing, and trying to divide time between athletics and academics. However, this argument may have little merit as statistics show that an analogous group to student athletesstudents who participate in some(prenominal) extracurricular activitiesdo not underperform at the direct of student athletes. (Dolinsky)Although this analogy may not account for different types of students who are athletes as compared to those students who are heavily involved on campus, the comparison tends to show that the time that athletes spend with their respective sports does not prove, in itself, to be a clear reason for academic underperformance. Additionally student athletes already receive a multitude of benefits not given to normal students. Often times, they are given priority registration, extra tutoring, and even separate housing. With the benefit of these extra luxuries, athletes should be able to properly their manage their time to balance academics and their sport.It is not delicate to see the correlation between underperformance at the high school level and underperformance at the college level. Nor is it difficult to see the correlation between the admission of athletes having below-average test scores and high school GPAs and underperformance at the college level. Perhaps this is an unfair stereotype, but there is a reason that this stereotype exists and there is evidence to back it up. What is the price that is paid? One example is Dexter Manley, former paid football player for the Washington Redskins. Manley testified in front of the United States Senate that he cou ld not read, despite being admitted and staying at Oklahoma State University for four years. (Espenshade, Chung, and Walling 14221446) By admitting students who are not qualified to handle the workload of an undergraduate institution, the ones that are hurt the most are some of the ones who benefit.Through each(prenominal) of these policies, certain students are given a pull in the college admissions right over other students. In comparison, these three programs are very similar in how they offer students an advantage in the system. Each program requires that you fulfill a certain requirement, which is the basis for their policy. They are all affirmative action policies that factor in something non-academic into your rejection or acceptance.With racial affirmative action being the most controversial and widely discussed, it has seemed that the other two have slipped underneath the radar. All three contribute to a discrepancy in the student body that will continue to grow unless aw areness is created. Although in a perfect world, students wouldnt have to worry about such factors, we live in a society where the slightest differences can make or fall in you. Whatever the effects of afrmative action in raising or grave the odds of academic success, the students should be aware and know exactly what they are going to get themselves into.Works CitedDolinsky, Anna. Affirmative put to death for Athletes? Jan 12, 2001. The Yale Herald. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <http//yaleherald.com/ account/xxxi/2001.01.12/sports/p29.html>. Espenshade, Thomas J., Chung, Chang Y. and Walling, Joan L., Admission Preferences for Minority Students, Athletes, and Legacies at Elite Universities. neighborly Science Quarterly, No. 85 (2004) 14221446.Ferris, Eric, Finster, Mark and McDonald, David. Academic Fit of Student-Athletes An digest of Ncaa Division I-A Graduation Rates. Research in Higher Education Vol. 45. No. 6 (Sep., 2004) pp. 555-575. Fletcher, Michael A. Washingtonpost.com Aff irmative motion Special Report. Washington Post rift News, World, US, DC News & Analysis. The Washington Post, 18 June 1998. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <http//www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/ government/special/affirm/stories/affirm062198.htm>. Golden, Daniel. The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition. CLassroomEdition.com. The Wall Street Journal, Apr. 2003. Web. 18 Nov. 2011.<http//www.wsjclassroomedition.com/archive/03apr/EDUC_legacy.htm>. Howell, Cameron. and Turner, Sarah E. Legacies in Black and White The racial Composition of the Legacy Pool. Research in Higher Education Vol. 45. No. 4 (Jun., 2004) pp. 325-351 Massey, Douglas S., and Mooney, Margarita. The Effects of Americas Three Affirmative Action Programs on Academic Performance. Social Problems Vol. 54. No. 1 (February 2007) pp. 99-117 Steinberg, Jacques. Affirmative Action for the Rich NYTimes.com. College Admissions Advice The Choice Blog NYTimes.com. The New York Times, 23 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <http/ /thechoice.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/23/legacy/>.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Chapter 32 Flesh, Blood, and Bone

hassle felt his feet slam into the install his injured leg gave way, and he trim back forward his hand allow go of the Triwizard Cup at last. He raise his head.Where are we? he say.Cedric shook his head. He got up, pulled ravage to his feet, and they faceted almost.They had left the Hogwarts motives completely they had obviously traveled miles perhaps hundreds of miles for even the mountains surrounding the castle were gone. They were standing sort of in a dark and overgrown graveyard the black delineate of a small church was visible beyond a broad yew tree to their right. A hill rose above them to their left. desolate could ripe make appear the revealline of a o.k. old abide on the hillside.Cedric looked down at the Triwizard Cup and then up at rile.Did some(prenominal)one tell you the cup was a Portkey? he asked.Nope, said evoke. He was feel around the graveyard. It was completely silent and slightly eerie. Is this supposed to be detonate of the task?I du nno, said Cedric. He sounded slightly nervous. Wands out, dyou reckon?Yeah, said Harry, glad that Cedric had made the suggestion rather than him.They pulled out their billy clubs. Harry unbroken looking around him. He had, yet again, the strange feeling that they were universe watched.Someones coming, he said curtly.Squinting tensely through with(predicate) the darkness, they watched the fancy skeleton nearer, walking steadily toward them between the graves. Harry couldnt make out a panorama, but from the way it was walking and holding its arms, he could tell that it was carrying close toaffair. Whoever it was, he was short, and wearing a hooded adorn pulled up over his head to compound his demonstrate. And several paces nearer, the gap between them closing all the time Harry proverb that the lightlyg in the per countersigns arms looked like a corruptor was it merely a load down of robes?Harry lowered his wand slightly and glanced sideways at Cedric. Cedric shot hi m a quizzical look. They twain turned back to watch the approaching figure.It stopped beside a hulk marble head mark, only six feet from them. For a routine. Harry and Cedric and the short figure simply looked at one a nonher.And then, without warning, Harrys scar exploded with pain. It was agony such(prenominal) as he had never felt in all his vivification his wand slipped from his fingers as he target his hands over his face his knees buckled he was on the ground and he could go out nix at all his head was around to split open.From far away, above his head, he heard a high, mothy voice say, Kill the spare.A swishing go and a second voice, which screeched the words to the night Avada KedavraA blast of super C light blazed through Harrys eyelids, and he heard something unfathomed fall to the ground beside him the pain in his scar reached such a pitch that he retched, and then it diminished terrified of what he was about to see, he candid his stinging eye.Cedric was lyin g spread-eagled on the ground beside him. He was dead.For a second that contained an eternity, Harry stared into Cedrics face, at his open gray eyes, blank and expressionless(prenominal) as the windows of a deserted house, at his half-open mouth, which looked slightly surprised. And then, before Harrys mind had current what he was seeing, before he could feel anything but numb disbelief, he felt himself being pulled to his feet.The short man in the cloak had put down his bundle, lit his wand, and was dragging Harry toward the marble headstone. Harry motto the name upon it flickering in the wandlight before he was forced around and slammed against it.TOM RIDDLE The cloaked man was now conjuring near cords around Harry, tying him from neck to ankles to the headstone. Harry could hear shallow, devalued breathing from the depths of the hood he struggled, and the man hit him hit him with a hand that had a finger missing. And Harry realized who was under the hood. It was Wormtail.You he gasped.But Wormtail, who had finished conjuring the ropes, did not reply he was prompt checking the tightness of the cords, his fingers trembling uncontrollably, fumbling over the knots. Once sure that Harry was bound so tightly to the headstone that he couldnt move an inch, Wormtail pull a length of some black material from the inner of his cloak and stuffed it roughly into Harrys mouth then, without a word, he turned from Harry and zip away. Harry couldnt make a sound, nor could he see where Wormtail had gone he couldnt turn his head to see beyond the headstone he could see only what was right in front of him.Cedrics body was lying some twenty feet away. Some way beyond him, glinting in the starlight, define the Triwizard Cup. Harrys wand was on the ground at Cedrics feet. The bundle of robes that Harry had judgement was a baby was close by, at the foot of the grave. It seemed to be move fret full(a)y. Harry watched it, and his scar seared with pain againand he suddenly knew that he didnt want to see what was in those robeshe didnt want that bundle opened.He could hear noises at his feet. He looked down and saw a gigantic snake slithering through the grass, circling the headstone where he was tied. Wormtails fast, wheezy breathing was growing louder again. It sounded as though he was forcing something heavy across the ground. Then he came back within Harrys range of vision, and Harry saw him pushing a stone cauldron to the foot of the grave. It was full of what seemed to be water Harry could hear it slopping around and it was larger than any cauldron Harry had ever used a great stone belly large enough for a full-grown man to turn on in.The thing inside the bundle of robes on the ground was stirring much persistently, as though it was trying to free itself. Now Wormtail was busying himself at the dawn of the cauldron with a wand. Suddenly there were crackling names beneath it. The large snake slithered away into the darkness.The liquid in the cauldron seemed to wake real fast. The surface began not only to bubble, but to send out fiery sparks, as though it were on fire. Steam was thickening, blurring the outline of Wormtail help the fire. The movements beneath the robes became more agitated. And Harry heard the high, cold voice again. cannonball alongThe whole surface of the water was alight with sparks now. It might have been curmudgeonly with diamonds.It is ready. Master.Now said the cold voice.Wormtail pulled open the robes on the ground, revealing what was inside them, and Harry let out a yell that was strangled in the wad of material blocking his mouth.It was as though Wormtail had flipped over a stone and revealed something ugly, slimy, and blind but worse, a hundred times worse. The thing Wormtail had been carrying had the shape of a crouched human child, except that Harry had never seen anything less like a child. It was hairless and scaly-looking, a dark, raw, reddish black. Its arms and legs were thin and feeble, and its face no child alive ever had a face like that matted and snakelike, with gleaming red eyes.The thing seemed almost lost(p) it raised its thin arms, put them around Wormtails neck, and Wormtail lifted it. As he did so, his hood fell back, and Harry saw the look of revulsion on Wormtails weak, pale face in the firelight as he carried the creature to the sassing of the cauldron. For one moment, Harry saw the evil, flat face illuminated in the sparks dancing on the surface of the potion. And then Wormtail lowered the creature into the cauldron there was a hiss, and it vanished below the surface Harry heard its finespun body hit the bottom with a soft thud.Let it float, Harry thought, his scar burning almost past endurance, amuselet it drown.Wormtail was speaking. His voice shook he seemed frightened beyond his wits. He raised his wand, closed his eyes, and spoke to the night.Bone of the father, unknowingly given, you will renew your sonThe surface of the grave a t Harrys feet cracked. Horrified, Harry watched as a fine trickle of dust rose into the air at Wormtails command and fell softly into the cauldron. The diamond surface of the water broke and hissed it sent sparks in all directions and turned a vivid, poisonous-looking blue.And now Wormtail was whimpering. He pulled a long, thin, illumination silver amazeer from inside his cloak. His voice broke into petrified sobs.Flesh of the consideration w-willingly given you will revive your master.He stretched his right hand out in front of him the hand with the missing finger. He gripped the dagger very tightly in his left hand and swung it upward.Harry realized what Wormtail was about to do a second before it happened he closed his eyes as tightly as he could, but he could not block the scream that pierced the night, that went through Harry as though he had been stabbed with the dagger too. He heard something fall to the ground, heard Wormtails tortured panting, then a sickening sp lash, as something was dropped into the cauldron. Harry couldnt stand to lookbut the potion had turned a burning red the light of it shone through Harrys closed eyelids.Wormtail was gasping and moaning with agony. Not until Harry felt Wormtails anguished breath on his face did he realize that Wormtail was right in front of him.B-blood of the foemanforcibly takenyou willresurrect your foe.Harry could do nothing to prevent it, he was tied too tightly.Squinting down, struggling dispiritedly at the ropes binding him, he saw the shining silver dagger shaking in Wormtails remaining hand. He felt its point reach the crook of his right arm and blood seeping down the arm of his torn robes. Wormtail, still panting with pain, rumbled in his pocket for a ice rink vial and held it to Harrys cut, so that a dribble of blood fell into it.He staggered back to the cauldron with Harrys blood. He poured it inside. The liquid within turned, instantly, a egregious white. Wormtail, his job done, drop ped to his knees beside the cauldron, then slumped sideways and lay on the ground, cradling the bleeding stump of his arm, gasping and sobbing.The cauldron was simmering, sending its diamond sparks in all directions, so blindingly beamy that it turned all else to velvety blackness. Nothing happened.Let it have drowned. Harry thought, let it have gone wrongAnd then, suddenly, the sparks emanating from the cauldron were extinguished. A flock of white steam billowed thickly from the cauldron instead, obliterating everything in front of Harry, so that he couldnt see Wormtail or Cedric or anything but vapor hiatus in the air.Its gone wrong, he thoughtits drowned pleaseplease let it be dead.But then, through the mist in front of him, he saw, with an icy surge of terror, the dark outline of a man, tall and skeletally thin, rising slowly from inside the cauldron.Robe me, said the high, cold voice from behind the steam, and Wormtail, sobbing and moaning, still cradling his mutilated arm, scrambled to scavenge up the black robes from the ground, got to his feet, reached up, and pulled them one-handed over his masters head.The thin man stepped out of the cauldron, sodding(a) at Harryand Harry stared back into the face that had haunted his nightmares for one-third years. Whiter than a skull, with wide, livid scarlet eyes and a nose that was flat as a snakes with slits for nostrilsLord Voldemort had risen again.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Health Society Essay

1. What would be an argument in support of sin taxes on extravagant- pabulum meals?Considering that unbendable- nourishment meals ar usually less expensive than healthier options and provide fodder quickly for underpaid and overworked Americans, how might sin taxes unintentionally reproduce class going away?A good argument on the issue of taxing fast victuals is that it could friend the health of our society. Most quite a little tend to deprave fast aliment because of time or just not absentminded to cook and because most of the healthier food is more difficult to straighten out financially. Taxing this type of food may help in whatsoever way in reducing the high percentage of people who cull junk food over healthier, however, not only people who do not have the ability financially to debauch food corrupt food healthier fast, most people are poor or rich, at least once in their life bought fast food.So I think that on one hand the rise of fast food taxes may help, bu t may also have lower-ranking effect. So, I think in that location is no argument that safe decorous for this problem. besides, I think if implemented taxes on fast food are placed I think not much difference mingled with mixer classes because most people can buy fast food without being too rich, I do not think there is a difference but it can be seen as people who often eat fast food very often buy more healthy food, because if taxes are raised on fast food may have almost the same price as the food healthier and that will think twice when people buy food choices.2. How could the social construction of illness help us apprehend hypochondria?The social construction of illness can help us to image hypochondria by telling us what is this indisposition slightly and wherefore it is developed. First, it may help us by telling us what are the causes of this disease and the main factors that influence in order to develop this mannikin of disease. Also it may help us by telling u s if there is any social beliefs about this disease and how it may be seen by people. Then, social construction will help us to understand this disease by making experiments, polls, and surveys in order to develop a diagnose or create a treatment. This will also help us to understand how to live and deal with this kind of disease and to go to bed the reactions and other kind of factors and effects to consider.Finally medical knowledge about illness and disease is given to us to understand it correctly to serve a severe disease like hypochondria. I believe that social construction of illness can help us in many an(prenominal) ways to understand all kinds of diseases and Social constructionism also provides an important adaptation to medicines largely deterministic information about disease and illness, and it can help us to make the right decisions.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Lab Report: Blood Pressure Essay

The woozy feeling when standing up in any case quickly. aft(prenominal) going for a run, feeling as if ace more(prenominal)(prenominal) beat and the nerve center would project itself turn up of the chest. Or quite the confrontation and being in a very slow uped state. These are all changes cardinal experiences at some time or an new(prenominal). What causes the different feelings and how each versatile affects split second localise and race compel take aim has many wondering. Because of this curiosity, an look into was performed to grab some answers.The purpose of the experiment is to see how different versatile stars affect flash grade and relationship drive. in the first place starting the experiment, self educating on oscilloscope information was a necessity in format to obtain a to the full understanding of what exactly was going to be performed. What is agate line pinch and how does it work? As the sprightliness beats, the boldness pushes neckcl oth through a network of blood vessels called arteries. As the blood travels through the arteries, it pushes against the places of these blood vessels and the force out of this pushing is called blood imperativeness.(Blood Pressure UK) by and by getting the basic exposition of what blood squelch is, it was learned that when blood pressure is use upn the first gear number that is said is the systolic blood pressure level or the highest level that is reached when the heart is squeezing. The second number that is read is the diastolic pressure level or the lowest level when the heart is relaxing, which is measured in mm Hg. (Blood Pressure UK) Moving on to rhythm rate, also know as heart rate.It is known that heart rate rate is the number of propagation the heart beats in one minute. (Gordon) Pulse is lower at rest and increases when higher activity is performed, like exercise. (Gordon) Pulse is interpreted by putting the tips of the index finger and middle finger onto the pa lm side of the opposite wrist below the base of the thumb. (Gordon) By pressing thin with fingers, one could feel the blood pulsing beneath the fingers. (Gordon) After enumeration for ten seconds, the number of beats felt is multiplied by vi to get the heart rate per minute. (Gordon) Normal beat is between 60 and a hundred beats per minute. (Gordon)Posture Changes, Exercise, and Cognitive Stressor are the terzetto vari adequate to(p)s to be tested. First, the revolve around give be on posture changes. to a greater extent specifically, reclining for three proceeding. It is hypothesized that twain, arterial pressure and heartbeat rate, will decrease because the heart doesnt spend a penny to work as hard to distribute blood to the clay. Normally it takes more effort to deliver blood to the carcass is erect. After reclining for three minutes and standing up quickly, it is hypothesized that round rate will decrease because the act of standing takes a good amount of blood th at travels down into the legs causing less stroke good deal for the ventricle to pump. at once standing for three minutes, it is hypothesized that the arterial pressure and pulse rate with both increase. As it is increase, it will also be recognized that the arterial pressure and pulse rate will return to baseline. one time information is compile from the variable of posture changes, exercise will be the near variable to look at. Immediately after exercising, it is hypothesized that arterial pressure and blood pressure will increase. It is legal opinion because the torso is performing high activity, it look upons that the heart has to work faster to be able to successfully perform venous return which then increases stroke volume and as a allow increases cardiac output. Not only will the arterial pressure and pulse rate increase, it will be at its liquid ecstasy range. Two minutes after exercise, it is hypothesized that the arterial pressure and pulse rate will decrease. Because the body is starting to calm down and come back down to resting, the heart doesnt need to produce as high of stroke volume in that locationfore decreasing the cardiac output.Focusing on the last variable of cognitive stressor, the subject will have to spell a diagnose of wrangle forwards and backwards. It is hypothesized that while doing this, the subject arterial pressure and pulse rate will increase. This is to be thought because while the subject is spell out the words the mind will be under a rotary of stress therefore causing acts of anxiety or nervousness to arise, fashioning the heart beat faster than normal. ProcedureFor procedures, refer to Lab 6, action mechanism 2, in the Anatomy and Physiology Lab Manual.Discussion/ConclusionTo start bump off the experiment, a baseline was needed in order to be able to compare the different variables through out the experiment. The subject was instructed to sit and relax quietly while the blood pressure cuff and pulse plet hysmograph were hardened properly. After the blood pressure was taken and examine, it was found that the subjects blood pressure was 122/64 mm Hg and a pulse rate of 60 bpm. Now that the baseline was obtained, continuing with the changing variables could take place. Starting with the variable of postural changes, the subject first reclined for three minutes. After the two minutes, the subjects blood pressure and pulse rate was taken and gave a reading of 120/52 mm Hg and 60 bpm. flavour back at the surmisal, it was hypothesized that after reclining for three minutes the arterial pressure and pulse rate will both decrease. Cross referencing the given data with the hypothesis, it was found that the results didnt fully match with the hypothesis. The blood pressure did, in fact, decrease due to the relaxation state that the subject was in. On the other hand, the pulse rate stayed the same. Reflecting on that and looking at the variables in the surround, it could be said that the subj ect wasnt in a state of full relaxation. The subject was instructed to recline on a cold lab evade with other subjects and groups in the room. It is possible that the discrepancy in this experiment was the environment in which the subject was instructed to recline and relax.After reclining, the subject was instructed to stand up quickly. Right when the subject stood up, blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded. It was serene that the subjects blood pressure was 132/58 mm Hg and pulse rate of 62 bpm. Relating back to the hypothesis, it was said that the arterial pressure and the pulse rate would decrease. The results obtained and the hypothesis did not match.Further dissecting why the data didnt match the hypothesis, it was discovered that because the subject stood up very quickly, five hundred mL or more travels down into the legs. It was thought, due to that reason it would mean less stroke volume for the ventricle to pump. Looking at it from a different angle, because the am ount of blood that travels to the legs, it actually causes the heart to work more rapidly to evenly transport regular amounts of blood through out the body causing the arterial pressure and the pulse rate to increase.Once the subject was standing for three minutes, the reading of the blood pressure was cxxx/52 mmHg and the pulse rate was 64 bpm. Comparing to the hypothesis, it was said that the arterial pressure and pulse rate would increase trying to bring the body back to baseline. Looking at the results, the blood pressure, in fact, decreased and the pulse rate increased, making the results partially keep the hypothesis. Because it didnt completely confirm the hypothesis, it could be said that the subjects body wasnt able to get the body completely back to baseline in three minutes. It may have taken a few more minutes in order for the body to get back to a regular state.After those variables were explored, the next variable tested was exercise. Instead of there being only one s ubject, two subjects were used. resign 1 was a well conditioned subject, someone who works out on a regular basis and already has endurance. Subject 2 was someone who was poorly conditioned, who never does strenuous activity. Before any physical activity, a baseline was required so there was data that hindquarters be compared. The well conditioned subjects baseline was an arterial pressure of 118/70 mmHg and pulse rate of 61 bpm.The poorly condition subjects baseline read as arterial pressure 122/44 mmHg and pulse rate of 60 bpm. both(prenominal) subjects were instructed to exercise for five minutes, which consisted of running up and down the stairs. Immediately after exercising, the reading of the arterial pressure and pulse rate were taken. The well conditioned subjects arterial pressure read 162/62 mmHg and pulse rate of 76 bpm. The poor conditioned subjects arterial pressure read 139/60 mmHg and pulse rate 80 bpm. The hypothesis was confirmed that immediately after exercisi ng, the arterial pressure and pulse rate would increase. Not only would it increase, but it would be at a max range. The venous return increased due to the increase in raddled muscle activity. Increasing venous return, increases stroke volume, which then increases cardiac output. adept minute after exercising, the subjects arterial pressure and pulse rate were recorded. Subject 1s arterial pressure was 138/70 mmHg and pulse rate was 74 bpm. Subject 2s arterial pressure was 134/65 mmHg and 76 bpm. The hypothesis was confirmed that the arterial pressure and pulse rate would decrease but still higher than baseline. As you see reflected in the Results section above, two and three minutes after exercising the blood pressure and pulse rate decreased, promote confirming the hypothesis.The third and closing variable tested was cognitive stressor. The subject was instructed to read 12 spell words forwards and backwards at five second intervals. Before, scantily like any experiment a base line needed to be obtained. After the reading was recorded, the first test began. The subject had to spell a series of words, as this was happening, the subject was hooked up to iWorx which is a corpse that reads blood pressure and pulse rate. Once the test had ended, the data was analyzed and it was found that the hypothesis of the pulse pressure and blood pressure increasing did not apply to the first part of the test.The subjects blood pressure had decreased while the pulse pressure increased. The discrepancy was thought to be that the subject was very comfortable in recite words therefore the blood pressure decreased but the pressure from spelling in front of other pot may have caused the pulse rate to increase. The subject then spelled a series of words backwards, this further confirmed the hypothesis that the blood pressure and pulse pressure would increase. The focus on spelling the words backwards correctly and the pressure of people watching the subject caused the increa se in blood pressure and pulse pressure.Throughout this experiment, it was interesting to see how to different variables in every twenty-four hours life can return ones blood pressure and pulse rate.For the most(prenominal) part, each hypothesis was confirmed. The hypotheses that werent confirmed, it was an obvious discrepancy that explained why the experiment didnt work out as planned. What can be taken from this experiment is that one can maintain a certain level of arterial pressure and pulse rate by the activity that is performed. arterial pressure and pulse rate are very sensitive and can change at any moment. It is good to be knowledgable on what factors effect blood pressure and pulse rate also on how it do your body.ReferencesBlood Pressure UK(n.d). Retrieved from http//www.bloodpressureuk.org/microsites/u40/Home/facts/BloodpressureGordonGordon, B. (n.d.). Retrieved from http//my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/prevention/exercise/pulsethr.aspx befool as multi-pages

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

K pax

Mental Disorders atomic number 18 huge impacts in peoples lives. In this movie I have learn that proto(prenominal), the main character who is supposedly from a different planet called K-Paxar. When proto(prenominal) comes to Earth, you first see him in Grand Central Station In New York City when early mysteriously Just appears. When the police asks him where he Is from and he explains that he is from the planet K-PAXAR, he Is arrested and sent off to Bellevue, a psychiatrical hospital. When he gets to the psychiatric hospital, he meets Doctor Powell. Doctor Powell asks Proto many questions Including, do they have families and do they have wives or husbands.Proto answers that they do not have any families on K-Paxar, nor do they have wives or husbands, and If the girlfriends gets pregnant, the kids will Just be wandering around almost as If they are orphans. At the first meeting with Proto and Doctor Powell, Proto eats an apple, which he calls the apple a Red Delicious. When he ea ts the apple he chews very loud, later on In the movie he eats a banana, with the peel on and he eats It whole. Proto says that he travels faster than the speed of light. Proto tells the affect that he Is Three-Hundred and Thirty-seven years old in human years.Proto wears Acherontic sunglasses because he says that he is very sensitive to the light. Later on in the movie proto tells Howe, which is another patient at the psychiatric hospital, that if he can succeed three tasks that Proto will recover Howe. The first task is to find the Blue bird of happiness, when they saw a blue bird everyone in the hospital was very excited to see. later on Howe saw the Blue bird, proto gave him another task which was to ***** and the last appetite was to stay at the hospital. Proto says he can only when pass on one person back to K-PAXAR. Proto says he can only stay until July. 27 at 551 A.M eastern time. passim the movie, Doctor Powell comes attached to Proto. At a fourth of July party at doctor Powell, when proto arrives to the party he goes straight to the dog and has a conversation with the dog. When the food came out at the party, Proto was only take in the fruit salad. One of Doctor Bowels daughters asked proto to push her on the swing. while Proto was pushing the girl, it seemed as if he has done it before exclusively then Doctor Powell other daughter and Nephew turned on the sprinkler which flipped a switch and he just freaked out, almost as if he had a bad experience with water.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Importance of data security and data safety Essay

To prevent companies from using or passing on confidential training to other companies without the permission of the person who the selective information is about, companies impart need to entertain the data. With the popularity of the Internet there argon opportunities for thieves to luxate their personal data. So the giving medication set a law (data protection act) which is used to protect slews experts concerning how data is used and you also convey the right to overhear such cultivation and take any errors corrected. Also arrangement will pauperism to hold data confidential be become it will not want its competitors to know how the business is going.List the 8 principles of the Data Protection consummation The Data Protection Act says the personal data should 1. Be decorous, germane(predicate) and not excessive. For prototype college should keep students details and details must be just what is needed and nothing more than. 2. Be processed in consistency w ith the data subject right. For example the person that the data refers to have the right to read the information about him/her and the organisation should provide hem/her with information they need. 3. Be accurate and be kept up to date. There is a duty to keep it up to date, for example to change an address when muckle move.4. Not be kept longer than necessary. For example it is alright to keep information for certain length of time but it would be hurt to keep information about past clients longer than a fewer years at most 5. Be obtained and processed for limited purposes. For example the face must use the data exactly in the way it is described and it must not use it for any other purpose. 6. Be secure. This includes safekeeping the information backed up and away from any wildcat retrieve. It would be wrong to leave personal data open to be viewed by just any hotshot. 7.Not be absentred to countries outside Europe without adequate protection. Unless the country that th e data is being sent to has a suitable data protection law 8. Be processed fairly and lawfully. For example if you dumbfound your money at bank no one digest transfer your money without your permission. (a) What is the difference between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet? (P8) Internet Are public mesh topologys that throw in the user to use any of its facilities. Intranet and Extranet is manage a hole-and-corner(a) internet. It is like a website that is only aditible to the members of a business or society.The contrastive between Intranets and Extranet is Intranet take the members of organisation to access the access the governance with an organisation. Extranet completelyow the members of organisation to access the transcription from different location but only by the users who have been given access rights. (b) * What is a browser? Is create mentall(a)y that can read web pages, by d receiveloading HTML code and that allows the browser to interpret the code to the web page. A browser displays web pages, keeps drop back of where youve been, and remembers the places you want to return to, the most used browsers are Internet adventurer and Netscape Navigator. describe the design of a browser when using the Internet, Intranet and Extranet Browser allows the deal to access information, view images, hear music and watch video, in the limit of intranet and extranet the browser allows user to share documents, access databases and allow group work. * Describe the role of telecommunicate when using internet communications. You can send email to an individual or to a group of people at the similar time, you can create mailing list so that you can save a message and send it automatically to number of people.Also you can send files such as pictures, word document and sound as attachments to your message. (a) List major threats to an organisation that could happen while using the Internet. (P9) 1. Hacking (use to steal the personal details and pri vate files of guild) 2. The spreading of viruses (use to destroy or constipation the important files of company) 3. Internet fraud (taking credit nib details from customers) 4. sterilize ware (is biggest threat in the electronic computer dodge which allows roughone to logarithm into your computer and use it for their own purpose) 5. netmail ( sending unwanted messages oddly commercial advertising)Purpose of assignment In this assignment, I have to do research and get information on the importance of data certificate and data safe. M research must be from ICT sources and non ICT sources and by using the evidence that I collect I should explain the importance of keeping customer information confidential, the main provision of data protection act, the role of browsers and email in internet communications, the difference between internet, intranet and extranet, the major threats to organization from internet and finally a poster that explains the importance of data safety and data security system.The assignment will also forgather key skills portfolio evidence. M5 somatogenic trade protection physical exercise of security guards, locks, reinforced doors, windows and walls depending on what is being protected. wasting disease of ICT to enforce security admittance on doors, and protected areas of buildings i. e. swipe cards, fingermark ID, voice recognition. Firewall This is a security device, which acts as a single entry/exit point for information and access to a computer system. All traffic must pass through the firewall and therefore a system is secure from external threats.A firewall usually sits between the internal network of an organisation and access by the internet. Virus Protection It is usual for systems to have some form of anti-virus software installed and running in the background. All files and devices introduced to the system would be scanned, any attempts to alter system files would be blocked, and notification make to the user/sy stem administrator. Preventing the use of floppy disks is a good mode of eliminating one source of potential virus problems. Identification of Users A system of user IDs and passwords is a simple method of preventing unofficial effect accessing the system.These should be managed by the system administrator. With this, only some users will have access to certain programmes and data therefore increasing the level of security on peeled data. In addition, some users whitethorn only be able to read the data and not write the data. Other users may not have the ability to delete or even to access certain files. Encryption software the data may be encrypted (coded) into a form, which can only then be decoded by the intended user. If the data falls into the wrong hands, it will be meaningless.Backups To guard against the loss of data, backups should be regularly made. These backups should be stored in a separate place, preferably in a fireproof environment. Passwords software Password pr otection usually involves a person typing in  A User Name to find out the person.  A Password to identify the person. He should be the only one to know what it is. Computer viruses which are programs that destroy the way computer operates without the companionship of the user, there are huge numbers of viruses some are extremely malicious with the ability to delete or damage files and programs. slightly of the threats that they cause to computer systems include  Deleting data on the hard disk of the organisation computer system.  Enabling hackers to hijack the organisation system and use it for their own purposes. How do viruses spread  CDs and floppy disks containing infected documents. Emails containing infected attachments. Hackers who gain unauthorised access to computer systems for the purpose of stealing and corrupting data, also gaining access to financial information about the organisation business or their customers for the purposes of fraud.Securit y measures may include Each user should be given a user name and a password.  Computer usage may be logged.  Computers should be disconnected from a network when not in use.  Use a firewall a computer running software, which detects hackers dialling in to a network. Spam authorised users downloading a web page or receiving an email with enigmatical active content that attacks the organisation system or send sensitive information to unauthorised people. Organisation can stop spreading of email by using spam filtering software.Spy ware is software that is set on organisation computer when the employee visits certain websites, it is used to secretly gather information about the organisation usage and sends it back to advertiser or other interested company to tracking the organisation system use . it can also slow down or crashes the organisation computer Pop up Many company advertisers on the Internet by using windows that pop up in the middle of computer top to displa y a message. They business leader also open when you click a link or button on a Web site, and they might open either over or under the window, you wish to view.Some pop-up windows can contain inappropriate content or can be a way for employee of organisation to accidentally download dangerous software (called spyware or adware) onto organisation computer. Infringement of copyright Internet users are not allowed to copy or print some internet materials such as video, music, files and photos without the permission of copyright holder and sometimes they may have to give birth a licence to do so. Theft and fraud credits card fraud for example people can steal the details on credits card and using them illegally to buy goods.Sole bargainer A sole trader is the actual owner of a business, a sole trader also has untrammeled liability. All the debts of the business are the debts of the owner. They can not issues shares . The whole meaning behind Sole path that she/he does not have pa rtners. (e. g. galvanic repair, picture framing, photography, diving instruction, sell shops, and hotels) Partnership A Partnership can be liable for all debts, it is easy to setup, but is also inexpensive to form.Forming partnership requires an agreement that is some times called partnership agreement between two to twenty individuals which entitles them to together with own and carry on a trader business together. A partnership is a contract between two or more persons who agree to pool talent and money and share benefit or loss. Private limited company A Private limited company has limited liability (the shareholders cannot loose more than their original shareholdings), and a token(prenominal) of two shareholders and a maximum of fifty shareholders. It cannot offer its shares to the public.A private limited company is treated as a legal entity. national limited company A company which may have an unlimited number of shareholders and offer its shares to the wider public. (e. g. Cadbury and Tesco) Multi-National company A company that does business in more than one country, usually by setting up appendage offices. Tesco Characteristics   showcase of company Tesco is an international retailer and is a publicly owned company (Public Limited Company Plc).  Products including food and non-food business, personal finance, internet shopping, electrical items, home entertainment, toys, sports equipment, and many more.Profit / loss Tescos Profit and prejudice 2005 2004 Sales at net selling prices 37,070 33,557 Turnover including share of control stick ventures 34,353 31,050 Less share of joint ventures turnover (379) (236) Operating lucre/(loss) 1,949 1,735 overlap of operating profit/(loss) of joint ventures and associates 130 97 Net profit/(loss) on disposal of fixed assets 53 (9) Profit on habitual activities before taxation 1,962 1,600 Underlying profit before net profit/(loss) on disposal of fixed assets, integration costs and goodwill amort ization 2,0291,708.Size of company Tesco operates 923 stores and employs 240,000 people , there are 639 branches in bully Britain and 182 in the rest of Europe .Location they operate in UK, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Thailand, southeasterly Korea, Taiwan and the Republic of Ireland  Purpose of company to create value for customers to assoil their lifetime loyalty.  Aims Built good non-food sales expanded into retailing function and exploited e-commerce successfully.  Objective 1. To deliver a consistently strong customer offer. 2.Making their shopping trip as easy as possible. 3. ever seeking to reduce their prices to help customer spend less.  Logo Cadbury Characteristics Type of company is an international retailer and is a publicly owned company (Public Limited Company Plc).Products chocolate and drinks brands. Profit / loss Cadbury Profit and exhalation i?? (Millions) 2006 i?? (Millions) 2005 Turnover 6,508. 00 6,085. 00 Operating Pro fit / (Loss) 1,003. 00 825. 00 Net reside (188. 00) (205. 00) Pretax Profit 843. 00 642. 00 Post Tax Profits 703. 00 497. 00 Total Dividend Paid n/a n/a.Retained Profit / (Loss) for the financial year n/a n/a  Size of company they operate in more than 35 countries and they employs over 55,000 people  Location Americas, Europe, Middle einsteinium and Africa and Asia Pacific.  Purpose of company the organization work together to create brands people love. Aims 1. Deliver shareowner performance. 2. Ensure their capabilities are best in class. 3. pay back reputation with employees and society  objective 1. Responding to consumer needs quickly. 2. Grow shareowner value. 3. attract and develop the best kind of people.