Thursday, February 28, 2019

Main Users of financial Reports and Their Conflicts Essay

Identify the main theatrical rolers of pecuniary reports, explaining to what use(s) they whitethorn tell such reports. To what completion is there a conflict between incompatible uses? How far atomic number 18 these conflicts resolved in a single set of annual accounts?The fiscal reports are derive and loss account, balance sheet and cash eat statement.There are m all users /parties interested in the accounts of a fellowship /organization. These include the followingThe owners / shareholdersThe directors / managersThe employeesThe creditors, i.e. suppliers of goods on creditThe tax governanceLenders, such as banks or other fiscal institutionsGovernmentThe users want the accounts for a variety of purposes, for exampleThe owners/shareholders are in the first place touch of the favourableness of the wrinkle and they therefore use them to search if they are getting a tolerable return on their investment, and too to assess the financial health of their family/ stemma. They whitethorn also use financial statements to assess the performance of the managers and reconcile the honorarium of managers who are employed to run the line of work for owners, which is part of the stewardship office staff of the accounting.The directors/managers are the ones to conduct the day-to-day operations and decision-making of the blood and they are, arguably, the most all-important(prenominal) users of the business because they require untold more than information in colossal detail on a more frequent basis than every other users. They normally use them for making both internal and orthogonal comparisons to evaluate the performance of business. They may compare their own financial synopsis of their come with with industry figures (competitors) in order to ascertain their companys strengths and weaknesses. Management are also engrossed with ensuring that the money invested in the company / organization is generating an adequate return and that the company / organization is able to turn over its debts and remain solvent.The creditors want to make out if they are likely to get paid, and hold back particularly at liquid state, which is the ability of the company / organization to pay its debts as they become due. They are also concerned with the viability of business.The tax authorities use them for value added tax, and income and corporation tax purposes. They are probably the one who concerned most with the genuineness of the financial statements as an underreported remuneration would focus the beat of taxes being collected and the public would consequently be suffered as the money of disposal will have fewer funds to spend to change the public transportation, pensions, reforms, etc.Prospective lenders use them to assess whether or not to invest their money in the company / organization.Government may wish to check whether the profit of the utility company are too immoderate and thereby increasing the owners wealth too much while reducing the spending power the consumers in a whole. And the contractors of governments profit shall be checked upon to see if they exaggeratedly quoted their prices during tendering and supervise the progress of the contract being conducted.As having being identified above, different users have different concerns ofthe financial aspect of the business and it would be listed as followsThe owners / shareholders positivity & viabilityThe directors / managers profitability & viabilityThe employees viabilityThe creditors, i.e. suppliers of goods on credit viabilityThe tax authorities profitability (net profit to be taxed)Lenders, such as banks or other financial institutions profitability & viabilityGovernment profitability & viabilityOwners / shareholders needs the generation of the profit on their investment and they expect a good return of their money they put in the business. And they also concerned with the viability because they want their business or business they invest ed to grow, to earn more money, instead of losing money, or going to liquidation (they may consequently loss all their money invested in the business).The directors / managers because their pay may be linked to the performance of the business and the more profit they earned for the business, the higher their salary is likely to be. The viability is also important to them as they want to keep their current job as they are also employed by the business.Employees, if not shareholders of the business, are employed by the circumspection to work for the business for various purposes. Their salary will be treat as an expense against gross profit so management may try to minimize this expense by employing an efficient worker who are reasonably paid and reducing the number of employees while at the alike time add moreresponsibilities to the remaining employees. Therefore, as long as the business remains, they could keep their job and secure their pay as a financial security, which is of g reat important to common employees. They would be happy to see the business grows via looking through the financial statements so that they would cope that the plenty continuously work for the business.Creditors are concerned with the viability of business because they would like to know if they are likely to be paid by the business out front too long. As long as the business has sufficient liquidity to pay them, they do not care and are not very interested in how much profit the business generated.Tax authorities always keep a keen eye on the profitability of the business because they want to the profit of the business to be taxed. They want to ascertain any underreported profit by examining the financial statements and attempt to discover any dubious items to be enquired and demanded details.Lenders, who provide long-term loan to the business, secured or unsecured, concern about the profitability and viability of the business as they want to know if they tail be repaid in th e schedule designated.Government may want business to sustain and therefore create more employment opportunities for the society. They would like to know the profitability of the business so as to impose regulations to keep the profit of business in a reasonable range to make it more afford and therefore increase the spending power of people and reduce the inflation.Although different users have different interests in business, the conflict can mainly be solved by the general-purpose and standardized format of financial statements. Because it is very costly and impractical to produce a different financial reports to each and every specific users, it is widely accepted that a general-purpose financial statements be produced to satisfy the most needs of the all users. standardise format would provide a easier way to make comparison of the business with its competitors as well as with the past reports of the business itself.

Bible Overview Booklet

Biblical studies occupy been ab break throughly n whizd as one of the most complicated mathematical operations that argon subjected to several conflicts in the file of theological brain. The dissimilar interpretations of the different religions with regards the theme of the countersign usually causes confusion among the hook up withers of the Christian faith. Unfortunately, not everyone who wants to know the knowledge sh ard through and through the watchword is suit fitting to detect the accurate knowledge that they intend to acquire from the consecrated Scriptures.Although there be numerous assistance training programs provided by the different phantasmal churches in the world, there is still an assumed lack of understanding of the record among the majority of the population of people in the human society. This is the primary think why the book of Max Anders entitled 30 Days to fellow feeling the record book Intends to suggest elbow rooms by which an someone c ould get the better(p) gist of the biblical learning that is suggested by the Holy Scriptures.From this busy class period material, it could be learned that the key to understanding the Bible in a deeper manner is identified by an individuals right angle of inclination in thinking when reading the word of matinee idol. Through this right disposition, an individual would be able to utilize the understanding he has in understanding the Bible in a much complicated yet more practical(a) way. (24) The chapters of this particular(prenominal) book directly points out the possibilities of an individuals understanding of the Bible in spite of appearance the span of thirty days.It is not through word by word reading without deep understanding except through thematic comprehension that the causality suggested an effective and progressive procedure of learning the entire message of the Holy Scriptures. In this particular writing, the author aimed to encourage everyone Christian or No t to think of the mishap that understanding the Bible inwardly thirty days could bring an individual.Indeed, the authors stressing of the major benefits of learning the Bible states the incident that the Holy Scriptures and its theme is designed not for the time-worn time extension as perceived by other people, kind of the pages of the Bible have been compose for the sake of the old, the present and the future generations of humankind. To part the discussion with, learning the main themes of the Bible is indispensable to assistance the readers get the main idea and the right motivation in reading the Bible.I. The Bible and Its Theme The entire theme of the Bible is focused upon the establishing the Kingdom of divinity, loosing it and the devise of reestablishing it again. As for a fact, the 66 books of the Bible overall pertain to the function of immortal in creating the Earth for mankind. It could be far-famed that this idea has been particularly assured by the by the fact that major passages in the Bible discusses the truth behind the intents of matinee idol towards the future of humans.Although the Bible had been write for the past hundreds and hundreds of years, examining it light(a)ly shall prove the fact that the central theme of the Bible is much applicable to all the different generations of the human civilization. Gods Blessed Kingdom has been primarily established to give the humans a possibility to live the best lives they could as they are also expected to moderate advantage of the privilege given to them by their holy place creator.The time when God lost the sovereignty of his rulership over the first humans Adam and even to the snares of the snake appearing to have been used by the devil as the personification of his voice ha been the reason why the issues on Gods rightful rulership over humans has been questioned. More than that, humans started to put forward for the sake of simply being able to get through with the day. The maestro decision of God for humans has been lost by the first spouse of humans.Since then, God planned to give his primary purpose upon earth a certain fulfillment in the future. The plans he had been making for the fulfillment of his purpose has mainly been the entire theme of the Holy Scriptures. As for a fact, the enounce Kingdom of God had been mentioned in the Bible for hundreds of times. II. Bible and the Human report (A Discussion on Creation and the Exodus) sensation of the primary starting points of explaining the plan was the written history of mankind.From the creation of the first partner of humans towards the attack of the promised messiah, the first centuries of the human history has been presented in the Bible with clear comment of the things that the different characters of the past had primarily been dealing with during their era of existence. As 2 Timothy 3 16 says All Scripture is inspired of God and beneficial for teaching, for reproving, for ascert ainting things straight, for disciplining in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be fully competent, completely equipped for every keen work. This pertains to the fact that the accounted written in the Bible basing form the History of mankind were written aforetime for the benefit of the generations to come which pertains to the present generation. The victories and the failures of the characters had been clearly out crimpd through the pages of the Bible. unknown any biographical account books, the Bible gives a detailed explanation of the characters being discussed including their sins and the consequences of the said wrong doings so as to cost to the generation that would read the said stories of the lives of the first century Christians.III. The Judges One of the most special sections of the Bible is the part where the procedures of judging the mistakes of the Israelites were given clear and accountable description. The Book of Judges primarily engraves the different principles followed by the Israelites during the time-honored times. Certainly, the impact of the book of Judges and the impact it has on the procedures of disciplining that neat Christians should mount today is therefore surd and juicyly practical for application.It could be spy form this particular book in the Bible, that the importance of string uping to the commandments of God is indeed an essential factor in becoming in oneness with God. deal who were not able to follow through were not given high regard by the Almighty Creator of all things. Instead, the consequences of their acts are well coming upon them, enough to remind them of the fact that they have erred against God. His commandments are not like the ones that have been formed within the human cause of laws.The limitations set through the principles of God have been designed to protect the humans and are thus not burdensome to follow. As Mathew 1129 points out Take my yoke upon YOU and learn from me, for I am mild-tempered and lowly in boob, and YOU will find refreshment for YOUR souls. For my yoke is kindly and my load is light. This particular verse from the Bible supports the fact that although God himself has set the guidelines for his followers to accompany and use as protection for their own selves if they do intend to follow the rules set for them.All these guidelines are particularly designed to assist the true Christians in living a fine a life in line with the laws of righteousness without being deeply hardened like as if they are forced to follow a certain set of rules. IV. The Eras of Exile The Israelites who were not able to follow the commandments set for them to follow fell into temptation of sin against the true God. Exile is the expulsion from ones own immanent land or home by authoritative decree literally in Hebrew, a departing. Cain, who killed his brother Abel, was cursed in banishment from the cause to become a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth.He had been a farmer, but the anchor thereafter would not respond to his cultivation. (Inspired by The Holy Scriptures, 1994, 25) In the same term, the Israelites lost their given privilege in a way that they were not able to follow the simple commandments of God to them written in His covenant with them. As a result, they were exiled to Babylon and became slaves in a foreign land. It was an assured result portraying the fact that God left their stead because of their failure. This is a rightful way of reminding Gods people of their responsibilities as his so called sworn nation.Later on, they were returned back to Jerusalem with a new believe of renewing their faith and their belief in the Holy God, their Father, and Their Creator whom they owed their lives from. From this particular historical account, it could be noted that the Christians of the present era are reminded to have a strong belief in the truth and a strong conviction that following the commandments of God describe for them in the Bible gives them the benefits that they hire to be able to lead a successful way of living.V. The church doctrine The Messiahs coming forth paved way to the refurnishing of the active Mosaic police force of which the early Christians followed as per given by God himself to protect them from the different effects of a lawless society. The Gospels were set by Christ when he arrived on earth and began to preach the good discussion to the people of Galilee and other places nearby. He went into places leading his twelve apostles to help people understand the laws of God in a more practical way.HE too set an example for his true followers to copy when he has already gone back to heaven as the right lead of his father. As Mathew 2419-4 reads Then people will deliver YOU up to tribulation and will kill YOU, and YOU will be objects of hatred by all the nations on account of my name. Then, also, legion(predicate) will be stumbled and will betray one another and will hate one ano ther. And many false prophets will arise and mislead many and because of the increasing of disorder the love of the greater number will cool off. But he that has endured to the end is the one that will be saved.And this good news of the dry land will be preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the nations and then the end will come Particularly, the Bible aims to help the people around the world realize that one way of copying Jesus examples as the giver of life and provider of safeguard for the ones who trust in him and his principles in living is to help others understand his church doctrine and the beautiful message about the hope that God gave to mankind regarding a bright future through preaching to them what one has learned for study the Holy Scriptures. VI.The Missions Aside form the mission of preaching the good news to others that Christ has primarily left his followers with upon returning to heaven, there are two major commandments that needs to be ful filled by true Christians today. The Bible further says Let YOUR love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is wicked, cling to what is good. In brotherly love have tender affection for one another. In showing honor to one another take the lead. (Romans 1210) He said to him You essential love your God with your whole heart and with your whole soul and with your whole mind. This is the greatest and first commandment. The second, like it, is this, You must love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments the whole Law hangs, and the Prophets. (Mathew 2237-39) The two major Bible verses cited herein could be noted to have a focus upon the major missions of the true Christians of the present generation of humans. It could be noted that the main point is to inculcate love within the relationships that they establish with others and especially with God.From this point, it should be concluded that the importance of being able to understand this missions and fulfill them in actual ap plication is indeed an essential part of pleasing the Creator of all things. VII. The Church The church is the innovation that God has placed in assistance to his ultramodern day followers. His holy spirit passes through his appointed ones, whereas he himself leads them carefully in providing the modern day Christian flock with the ample spiritual nutrition that they need to be able to survive the challenges of the world.For this reason, the church has been appointed to be on top of the list of providers of the ample guidance needed by Christians in understanding the Biblical explanations as well as the principles that are outlined for them to follow. From this explanation, it should be certain to modern Christians that religion and the church itself indeed sets the ground for an individual in being able to identify the requirements of God from them as His faithful followers.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Human Resources Management in Business Essay

kind-hearted resources subdivision is a plowshare of argument that deals with its module. The segment is seen as part of strategic management, in the effort to arrive at the goals of the bank line, and is crucial to the dividing lines success. Some of the human resources departments responsibilities include recruitment, retention, selection, headache enterprise detonation/enrichment, motive and leadership, job role allocations, pedagogy, and payroll appraisals. The departments decisions atomic number 18 influenced by, so far, natural issues for act uponforce planning. One of the issues could be the cost of its operations.The tune would want to minimize cost, so any decisions take up by serviceman resources should be cost- rough-and-ready. A nonher issue could be the associations fear strategy, for example when the confederacy want to expand, the adult male resources department would take for to recruit much than employees if the confederacy wants to cut co st and add profit, the department would take on to consider reducing the number of round. It is in like manner trus twainrthy for nurture current employees for any novel equipments. in that location atomic number 18 withal external work come to the fores that refer how workforce planning is carried out.These external factors include political science actions that run into the business environs. For example, the g all overnment aro utilization impose innovative minimum wages that would increase the charit up to(p) resources departments spending on wages payment. The education situation of the coun distort mint to a fault affect Human resources, as education is the instrument that thespians gain their skills without proper education, Human resources wouldnt be fit to recruit highly skilled doers without paying(a) large salaries or recruit foreign nationals. An important external factor is the economic situation of the economy.If unemployment rates argon high, Human resources would be open to recruit hot employees much easier and cheaper than when the economy is in boom, which makes effort much than expensive. The age ranges of the grind force ordure affect Human resources decisions, since they feignt want to recruit too old of employees who argon sack to retire soon. The business a good deal want to a greater extent than young employees who provide potentially contribute to the fellowship for a long period of eon, and can likewise be more innovative. An separate external factor is engineering science advancements, as this may result in the basis of new equipments into the affable club.The Human resources department would wherefore have to organise training for their current mental faculty to enable them to work with the newly acquired machineries. There argon many pardons to Human Resources planning. One of the most important purpose of the Human Resources department is to move stave. This can be done by means of promotions, training, and rewards. Another benefit is that Human Resources help import important skills into the business through the member of recruitment. Human Resources would compose a recruitment serve up that selects the right the great unwashed for the business.Without a Human Resources department, a firm cannot efficiently recruit employees that they need. Also, the department helps the business plan the right number of workers. They make sure that in that location are no redundancy or shortages of labour in the company, and if thither is any, Human Resources would fix this either by cutting or recruiting staff. Human Resources department as well take ins smooth operations in regards to labour management. This means they make sure that employees arrive when they are needed, and are allocated to the right tasks, and that distributively workers know their role within the business.In addition, they resolve whatever arguments that may arise amidst the workers and compa ny management, making sure that the employees are suck of company regulations, and that management are clear of their workers conditions. Finally, the Human Resources department go overs that no laws are broken in regards to labour employment. For example, the recruitment process must(prenominal) not violate discrimination laws. All necessary laws are briefed to staff to ensure no illegal activities are conducted within the company.Before selecting staff for any position, key skills needed for that particular job need to be identified, creating a list of criteria for candidate selection. British Sugar is one of the largest supplier of sugar products in the UK. Their Human Resources department has been directed to recruit trine new ware autobuss, as part of the companys amplification project in China. The Human Resources department has identified the key skills for a potential mathematical product coach Confidence the manager involve to be confident in handling large respo nsibilities, whether it be meeting production deadlines, ensuring worker safety device etc.They need confidence to be able to make decisive actions, taking the initiative without too much addiction on higher directives. As they direct the production process, confidence is alike needed for negotiating with suppliers, making the best deals for the grinder. Technical skills a production manager has to be sufficiently noesisable about the production technology of their factory, to be able to understand and resolve technical problems should they arise. Technical knowledge of a manager does not have to be detailed, but must be sufficient to issue correct directives to the factorys engineer force. last technical skills is preferred, as the manager give be more possible to be innovative in improving production systems of the firm. converse skills a proper production manager is able to slip away to all diametric divisions of the company. They are quick to absorb information from antithetical trains of the company, whether it be purloin management or floor workers, and then provide quick and effective feedback. Communication skills are crucial in a manager, as it helps him ensure the coordination between different elements of the company.Problem-solving skills the production manager should be able to one by one deal with problems within their factory. They will be extremely resourceful in coordinating factory or company-level efforts to solve problems. This requires an intelligent person that can improvise upon their resources to damage-control and reverse the problem and put the factory back onto its first course. Motivating staff is an important part of company operation, as it ensure the employees do their best and be robust while working for the company.There is a variety of reasons why employees would want to work harder in their working environment. Such reasons could be money, bon habituates, power, working with friends, social aspects of work, the need to provide for family, promotion, squad work, and promotion. Frederick Taylors theory of motivation scarcely stated that all workers are worked by money. This means that in effectuate to wear out trip employees, the employer simply just has to raise their pay, and this would make them work harder. Taylor introduced the Theory of Scientific Management, which express that workers are naturally lazy and need c abide supervisions and control.The theory also says that managers should bypass down work to the simplest tasks to their employees. Workers also need adequate training and equipment to do their simple tasks as efficiently as possible, then they would be paid according to the amount of products they had bewilderd. The theory is often applied in mass production lines which involves repetitive tasks. Elton Mayo later introduced a new theory of motivation of his own. He believed that money is only part of the workers concern, and social needs are more important in motivating workers at their work place.Mayo published the Human similitude school of thought, which encourage managers to centre more on social interactions between workers. Mayo went further in his studies and conducted his own experiment at the Hawthorne factory in Chicago. From these series of experiments, he concluded that although physical conditions worsened, they do not affect the productivity of the Hawthorne workers. Instead, social factors such as better conversation between workers and managers, better involvement in employees lives from their manager, and team work was what mitigate productivity levels.In the 1950s, Abraham Maslow introduced the Neo-Human Relation school of thought. This new theory focus on the employees psychological needs, which are structured into five different levels of needs. The theory says that once a lower level of needs is satisfied, would then the worker could be motivated by an upper level of needs. These levels of needs in lower to high er order are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation respectively. Managers also need to realise that each worker moves up this ladder at a different pace, and therefore competency need different sets of incentives from worker to worker.In financial-related type of motivations, the most prevalent motivation is salaries and wages. Salaries are what permanent employees are paid monthly or annually. Wages, on the other hand, is what is paid to workers per hour they have worked. These can motivate the employees, for the harder they work, the more they would earn. A piece rate system is when an employee is paid a fixed rate for each unit of production In other words, they are paid by results, which motivate them to achieve better results. committee and fees are similarly dependent on the results of the workers.Commission is a function of the sale revenue, and fees are fixed amounts that are earned subsequently sale. The more the employee sells, the more commission or fees they get, motivating them to sell more. Fringe benefits are any non-wage payment or benefit such as subsidy plans, profit-sharing programs, vacation pay, and company-paid life, health, and unemployment insurance. Having these extra benefit with their jobs can make the employees feel more secure and work harder. Performance-related pay or pay by effect is money paid relating to how good the employee works.This would motivate them by giving them knowledge that the better they perform in their field, the better their assessment would be and the more they would be paid. Profit sharing is another way of motivating staff, it consists of a plan that gives employees a share in the profit of the company. Each employee receives a percentage of those profit based on the companys earnings. This makes staff work harder, knowing the more their company earns, the more they would get in shared profit. Share ownership is when employees who have worked in the c ompany for a long time are given part of the business as shares.These shares would give the employees power, and they get to take part deciding how the company is run. other than financial motivations, there are non-financial ones that could boost motivation while cost minimal for the business. Job redesign involves restructuring the elements including tasks, duties and responsibilities of a specific job in order to make it more encouraging and inspiring for the employees. Job enlargement is fundamentalally increasing the employees work load, so that they feel more obligated and work harder.Job rotation is when employees are moved between two or more jobs in a planned manner. The purpose of this is to chance upon the employees to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and to cross-train them. Job enrichment is a variation of job enlargement. Job enrichment adds new sources of job satisfaction by giving the employee additional authority, aut onomy, and control over the way the job is accomplished. team up work is a Cooperative effort by the members of a convocation or team to achieve a common goal.Working in a team may motivate employees to do better to accomplish their part on the team. External link for employees motivating can be found here http//www. forbes. com/sites/glennllopis/2012/06/04/top-9-things-that-ultimately-motivate-employees-to-achieve/ The fundamental manner which British Sugar would use to motivate their staff is to make them feel safe. Feeling safe would clear the employees minds from external worries, helping them to focus more on their tasks and try harder to achieve. This method acting would include providing their employees with adequate facilities to work in.This means that British Sugars factories and offices would to the most basic safety regulations such as fire safety, electrical safety, and protection from hazardous conditions inside their factories. British Sugar would also make sure that their facilities have appropriate security measures to protect employees and their possessions safe. This method of motivation is one of the most basic levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Another method that British Sugar uses is providing extra employee benefits beside their regular salaries and wages. They would give company cars for manager and directors, along with exonerate O2 mobile phones.British Sugar also looks after their employees by providing them with free healthcare in the form of free check-ups with company nurse, eyesight tests and glasses, and subsidised scheme with AXA. Families of employees can also enjoy company benefits with provided child vouchers and team meals for spouses. British Sugars factory workers are also provided with free safety work wear. There are many other benefits that employees can enjoy working for British Sugar, which includes sports clubs, gym facilities, free parkingetc. A popular method of motivation from Taylors school of thought is recognition.British Sugar would give out tokens of gustatory modality and to recognise employees/teams that have do a epoch-making contribution over and above that reasonably expected. Company managers would award their employees with vouchers, meals, bouquet of flowers, or bottles of drink to boost their work morale. Long Service Awards are given to employees with significant length of service. Annual bonuses of ? 400, ? 600, ? 800, and ? 900 are given to employees who have served 20, 30, 40, or 45 years in the company respectively. British Sugar also use chances of promotion to encourage their employees.This is a process known as internal recruitment. When a position is open, employees are often promoted to fill the position instead of recruiting new people externally. This keeps the employees motivated to work harder, knowing there are chances of future promotion. Another method of motivation utilise by British Sugar is performance management. Performance management is a proactive and incessant process of communicating and clarifying role responsibilities, performance expectations and priorities in order to ensure mutual understanding between managers and employees.To ensure the proper work of the business, British Sugar would have to maintain a high level of cooperation and satisfaction in its employees. Making employees assist would increase productivity, reduce labour dollar volume, and make sure that they can maintain the quantity and quality of work they are capable of. One of the methods of doing this is by communication. This method involves staying in consult with the staff to make sure they are updated with company information.When staff have the information that they need for their job, they will be more likely to be oriented towards their tasks, and be able to do it correctly and more efficiently. Communication with employees can be done by many means. It includes emails, which are quick, efficient, and reliable. face to face comm unication is an important form of communication, often in the form of meetings however it has time and distance limitations , for example a manager might not have the time to see all of his employees to talk about new policies, while he could just send them all an email.There are other methods such as telephone calls, which can be made easily over long distance or face-time technology that allows employees to communicate despite the long distance. Another way of improving employees cooperation and commitment in the business is making them more involved in it. In British sugar, this is know as the quality circle. British Sugar would direct its employees group discussions, where groups of workers meet and discuss the good and bad side of the issues that they face. The employees would try to resolve their problems together, and discuss ways to improve how they work and how the company works.This method generates a feeling of involvement, employees would feel that they are a contributi ng part of a team, and therefore view their work more positively and pass away more inclined to cooperate with other employees as well as the company managers. Clear employment contracts also help boost staff cooperation and commitment. A clear contract would have to explicitly explain the expand of the job, such as explaining the roles and duties that the employee is expected to carry out, along with the hours of work required.The business would also need clearly identified procedures such as corrective policies or grievance policies. A clear pay structure that explains basic time as well as overtime is essential. All of these will reduce arguments in the company, enabling more efficiency and cooperation within the business. motivational methods are a way of getting more cooperation from staff. Motivated employees would perform better while feeling better about their prospects than demotivated ones, therefore cooperating more in their work.Similarly, training and charity links sh ould also be apply to boost the morale of workers. prep would increase the employees motivation and performance, as well as charitable activities such as helping out the topical anaesthetic community. A well-motivated workforce with high morale is more likely to cooperate with the company and to each other. The culture of the business itself will also affect how its employees cooperate. If the company has a culture of cooperation and an atmosphere of teamwork, then the employees are more likely to have more cooperation in their work.Training in a large organisation such as British Sugar is carried out extensively. An example of British Sugars training operation is their refine scheme, a scheme in which British Sugar finds apprentice in universities. The company would offer university graduates a period of vocational training, with the assurance of a job at the end of their training, in addition to have year-long job placements for engineering students. British Sugar also organis es over 1000 training courses every year involves all levels from senior managers to new apprentices and our seasonal workers.The company encourages its sites to play an active role in topical anesthetic communities through media visits, schools activities, unsophisticated and environmental events. British Sugar have regular dialogues with leading and local non-government organisations. They also organise sponsorships and charitable funds, allocated to their employee fundraising activities through a Supporting YOU to give others programme. Measuring the workforce can be done by a number of ways. This is generally looking for at the key indicators in the business workforce such as labour productivity, health and safety, labour turnover and absenteeism. boil productivity is how much the workers produce in terms of goods and work per hour worked. In the business, it can be measured by looking at the efficiency of individual or teams. However, this method should be used with cation , because there are factors that could affect labour productivity such as the age of machinery, type of sector that the business is in or whether production is automated or labour-intensive. If machineries are old, they wouldnt be able to produce as much, therefore being the cause of low labour productivity. A business in the secondary sector would be more tillable than one in the tertiary sector since manufacturing makes more products than service. Similarly, a business that has automated production will be much more productive than one with labour-intensive production, since machines are able to mass produce more products than individual workers. A business can try to improve labour productivity by using motivational tools such as bonuses. Training can also be used to add productivity to workers, and business plans help staff work more efficiently. The business can also buy new equipments to improve productivity of their workers.Another measurement is health and safety. As it is o ne of the motivational factor, the quality of health and safety at the workplace can affect the staff. The better the health and safety standard, the better the staff will perform. The business must consider the possible causes of brusque health and safety, such as poor equipment, dangerous environment and also the poor training in the matter. Labour turnover can also be used to measure a companys workforce. Labour turnover is the proportion of staff leaving the business over a period of time, usually each year.A company can lose their staff callable to de-motivation, retirement, social factors, better opportunity elsewhere ,or that the employee wants to have their won business. Staff leaving can also be involuntarily as their positions become redundant or they are fired due to performance. A high labour turnover is generally not good because it spawns many problems such as the loss of productive capacity, the costs and the time taken to recruit new staff, and the extra training and induction programmes to new employees.However, new staff can bring benefits such as introduction of new ideas to the business, or more efficient workers. Absenteeism is another measurement to the companys workforce, as it tells managers how much their staff go on break from work. This can be a substantial problem for the business, because production sidetrack will suffer if employees are absent, projects will run into delays, and the quality of products abnormal due to the lack of staff. There are many other costs associated with absent staff, such as sick pay, and temporary staff pay, which is often expensive.Absenteeism also cause de-motivation in the business, as other employees will have to take the work load of the absent employees. To lower the level of absenteeism, the business can issue fines to absent staff, improve the safety of the work environment so staff would want to be at work, and improve their motivational methods. British Sugar uses a range of performance in dicators to evaluate and improve their performance. SMART targets are a set of criteria that are based on the specific words specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-specific.These criteria are applied in the process of making goals and objectives, to maximise the business chances of obtaining them. Punctuality is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfill an covenant before or at a previously designated time. Attendance is the oftenness with which a person is present. An appraisal system, or performance management, is a proactive and continuous process of communicating and clarifying role responsibilities, performance expectations and priorities in order to ensure mutual understanding between managers and employees.It is very multipurpose as it is both a motivational strategy and a check system where mangers can assess their employees. The appraisal system would fulfill the employees social and recognition needs according Maslow theories, motivating to work harder to achieve more and be more recognised. The system is not without flaws, however. The appraisal system can be very costly, requiring a lot of administrative work, and is time-consuming. It is also opened to favouritism. Managers can tend to trust and praise some employees more than others, make distrust discontentment among team members.

What is digital television?

Digital telly offers a superior format by overspreading sharper pictures and clearer sound. Also, digital boob tube is several(a) and can be apply for a variety of purposes. Further more, with digital tv, there is an efficient use of the spectrum for a variety of essential service such as police departments, emergency service, deliin truth companies, etcetera This is because digital signals free up bandwidth and provide space. Jerome Adda and Marco Ottaviani write that, Digital compression engineering allows roughly six quantifys as m either channels to be broadcast with the same amount of spectrum used by one line of latitudeue channel. (169)Digital video recording set set is a new advanced engineering which is used to trust and ask for broadcast signals (both picture and sound). Digital television supports the following service subscription TV programming, computer software distribution, data transmissions, teletext, interactive services and sound recording signals. Di gital television is superior to analog television because it is more accurate, versatile and compatible with other electronic media such as computers, satellites, mobile phones, etc. Digital television has certain technical specifications which lap it apart.Joel Brinkley writes that these qualities of digital television have made it very(prenominal) popular and attractive. These are as follows modernized scanning, shape pixels, enhanced frame rates, added lines per frame, different purview ratios, different aspect ratios, and clearer sound. Progressive scanning is a better technical format than latticelike scanning. The former allows for smooth sequence of video frames. With this, progressive scanning which is used in digital television allows for compatibility among digital television and computers.With square pixels, digital television has 1920 pixels per line and a total of 1080 lines per frame. This gives pictures on digital television a sharper resolution. With the enha nced frame rates digital television allows more frames per second. As a result motion envisioned on digital television is more possible- the more frames per second, the more realistic motion will be. The aspect ratio for digital television is 169. This aspect ratio of digital television gives larger pictures and makes viewing more natural. Digital television produces clear sound because it uses five channels of decided compact disc shade audio.Apart from the aforementioned, digital television presents a upshot of advantages which hitherto were unavailable with analog television. With digital television there is a wider choice of programs available for the audience to choose from. Digital television presents a large emergence of channels and this does not affect the forest of any the programs on the channels. Furthermore, on digital television, the audience is able to engage in other activities such as electronic shopping, betting, etc. Digital television is also a channel for reaching the audience with information services because the medium is not restrictive.With digital television, the audience is able to browse the Internet. Also, digital television also provides telephone services and is compatible with computers and mobile phones. The technology of digital television is very compatible with many other digital devices. This ability makes it possible to accomplish a high level of interactivity on digital television. Viewers are able to vote on digital television using remote controls, as well as achieve cardinal way communication with the mother station for various purposes.In price of income generation, digital television offers an efficient way of monitoring subscriptions and watchs that only mint who pay receive the service. In this way digital television is very useful to manager so broadcast stations. From this time on, there has been energise growth in digital television. Toward this end, there has been a deadline set to ensure a transi tion from analog broadcasting to digital broadcasting in the linked States. Other developed countries of the world have also set dates for this transition. Origin of digital television.Although digital television is often perceived as a recent phenomenon, the journey to where it is now began a big time ago. According to Alexander B. Magoun the commencement exercise digital television system originated amid 1956 and1961. It was started by Richard Webb, an ex RCA engineer, who was working on contracts for encrypted video communication contracts postulate by the military and National Security Agency in the United States of America. Magoun writes that Richard Webb was able to obtain digital signals when he converted the analog luminosity data from a monochrome video signal into a binary star bitstream.This binary bitstream was encrypted by the digital computers used by the US force at the time. Webb based his work on the knowledge and experience of other engineers from other com panies. Webb found the modulation technique of Frank DeJager (an engineer from Phillips) very useful. Originally this modulation technique was used in sound recordings. utilize the modulation technique, Webb and his team in Colorado encoded the relative brightness of each pixel (they did not encode the absolute brightness). In doing this, they saved world-shaking bandwidth and created a single channel for data transmission.Thus digital television came into being. The first digital television station was established in the White nursing home when President Dwight Eisenhower was in office. This system remained in place in the whitened house till 1979. What is Analog Television? Analog television encodes pictures using varying single voltage and radio frequencies. Analog television receives and displays broadcast signals that are transmitted using the radio waves. Alexander B. Magoun notes that in analog television, the video component is transmitted using amplitude modulation (AM) term the audio component is transmitted using frequency modulation (FM).Analog television is inefficient because it is subject to interference. When this interference happens, the pictures become grainy and picture quality is greatly diminished. The quality of analog signals is dependent on the distance between the receiver and the transmitting station. On analog television, the broadcast signal continues to cave in as distance increase from the broadcast station to the receiver. When this happens, the pictures which appear on the analog television become ghosty with grains (it appears to be snowy). This is often referred to as a snowy, fuzzy or ghosted picture.However, digital television is able to overcome this flaw which plagues analog television. With digital television, distance does not matter. No matter how out-of-the-way(prenominal) the broadcast station is from the receiver, the picture quality does not diminish. As long as the digital signal is still being received, t he picture quality remains the same. Digital television does not suffer from ghosting or haphazardness that arises from weak signals. The converter boxes which are used by digital tuners receive numeric information from the antenna. This eliminates the possibility of interference in digital signals.Analog television signals are transmitted using and interlaced format. In this interlaced format, the erratic number lines are transmitted first before the even number lines. Each of these sets of lines are referred to as fields. These two fields make up one picture frame, i. e. the video image. In a sense, analog television is restrictive. On the other hand digital television provides an opportunity for datacasting which enhances interactivity. In this modern age there is need to establish a two way relationship with the audience and this is what digital television ensures.The era of decelerate feedback is no longer the case. Audience reaction can be measured with ease. However, it i s important to state that analog television has been used before the climax of digital television. Although the former has its shortcomings it has served many uses in society to date. In the wee days, according to American television standards, there the analog television was operated at 30Hz frames per second. This was in contrast to the 24 frames per second in the early days of motion pictures. However, with the introduction of color television there was a repulse adjustment to 29. 97Hz frames per second.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Othello presents women as the victims of men Essay

To what extent do you agree that in Othello Shakespe ar innovates wo workforce as the sadal victims of men?Throughout Othello, Shakespe ar employments the manipulation of the protagonist, by the antagonist, Iago, to present a play controlled by men. In such a potent dominated inn, Shakespeargon presents the women in the play as sad victims at the workforce of their conserves, in particular Desdemona and Emilia. Throughout this essay I will mention to the Aristotelian and Senecan descriptions of tragedy to come to a conclusion of how in Othello Shakespe be presents women as tragical victims of men. Firstly, by means ofout Othello Shakespeare presents men as the dominant characters of the play, whereas the women are portrayed as characters to always be suspicious of. No pistillate character is given as many lines in the play as any male character, in particular Iago. This is reflective of Iagos dominance in Othello, consequently meeting one of the Senecan definitions o f tragedy presenting women as tragic victims of men. Furthermore Othellos suspicious nature towards his wife, Desdemona, is false, and though the women are constantly thought of cheating, they never do. In act 3 image 4 of the play Desdemona claims that Othello is true of mind.The dramatic irony of that arguing once again implies that Desdemona is a character who follows social hosts, yet her husbands false accusations relate to the Aristotelian definition of tragedy in the Desdemona is pitied by the auditory sense due to her pure feelings of love towards Othello. The use of the procedural true further shows Desdemona as a tragic victim of Othello as she is unaware of Othellos beliefs that she is cheating on him with Cassio, which is false. Though women may be portrayed as tragic victims in Othello, Emilia gives the au scare offnce cause to believe that women are far from tragic victims in the play. She ch completelyenges social convention in that women should be passive to the ir husbands. In defiance of Iagos Be wise, and get you home, Emilia here debates the model of a profound wife, who should be silent and marginalised. Though Emilia is undoubtedly ultimately a tragic victim of the play, she reveals how asymmetricaled a male dominated social club is when she clears Desdemonas reputation. Her death opposes an immoral conviction against her sex, exonerating her part in the tragedy.In act four scene three of the play, Emilia implies that she is able to men, which suggests to the readerfurther that she is a character who once again defies societys expectations of women. Emilia criticises the way men behave, in which she asks have we non affections/desires for sport-and frailty-as men have? claiming that womens needs are just the analogous as men, although it is acceptable for men to cheat on their wives. This is supported early in the play when Emilia likens mens behaviour to that of belching, which itself is a vulgar activity. they are all but s tomachs, and we all but regimen/they eat us hungerly, and when they are full/they belch us this corrupt truth is also reflective of how men treated women, and that it was ok for men to cheat on their wives, but had women done the same, it would have been considered a sin. On the other hand, Emilia could be interpreted as a tragic victim at the hands of men in Othello. As oppose to Desdemonas marriage to Othello, Emilias marriage to Iago has lost all signs of romance and affection, and her victimisation could be interpreted through her satirical pose towards men.Her death at the hands of Iago, her manipulator, shows that Iago was truly to blame for Othellos polish off of Desdemona, as it was him whom Emilia stole Desdemonas handkerchief for. Her death is therefore her punishment, furthermore making Emilia a tragic victim as she has died through no fault of her own. Like Emilia, Desdemona is also a tragic victim of the men in Othello. Her murder, like Emilias, is through no fault o f her own is a result of Othellos jealousy and Iagos interference. What makes Desdemona even more tragic to the audience is the fact that even in death she tries to protect her husband, telling Emilia that she has killed herself, nobody, I myself, this further depicts to the audience that Desdemona is a fountainhead and pure character. Her devotion to her husband makes her a tragic victim in the play as she can not be blamed for her death. Contextually it is important to understand how women are presented as tragic victims of men in Othello.Contemporary views of women were, according to Sir Thomas Elyot to be mild, timorous, tractable, benign, of sure remembrance, and shamefast. Conversely men were seen to be fierce, strong in opinion, covetous of glory, burning of knowledge, appetiting by generation to bring for his semblable. Elyots views of the contemporary man, though a good deal grander than those of women, could prove to be their downfall in Othello. Shakespeares protagoni sts downfall could be based on the fact that he is greedy of knowledge, and Iagos manipulation ofOthellos trustworthy nature suggests that not alone are women the tragic victims of men, but it is men who are also victims of men. The use of derogatory language and coarse sexual imagery is used by Shakespeare to show the male characters misogynistic attitudes towards women, and this is evident whenever Iago speaks of the opposite sex. His express feelings of Desdemona, a character who is pure and good passim the play, particularly portrays how women are presented as tragic victims of men. He tells Brabantio that a black ram is tupping your vacuous ewe, referencing Othello and Desdemonas romance.The contrast of black and white suggests that Iago views Desdemona and women in general as guilty beings, which further suggests to the audience that women are tragic victims of men in Othello as it is the men who are guilty, not the women. Desdemonas father, Brabantio, holds a exceedingl y misogynistic view towards his daughter upon hearing of her affection for Othello, when he answers the question is she utterly? with aye to me. Iago also views women as objects- look to your house, your daughter and your bags, his materialistic view of women, in which equating Desdemona to material good, suggests that Iago is a misogynist as he does not hold women in high regard at all. In conclusion, women are certainly presented by Shakespeare as tragic victims in Othello, however it is not completely at the hands of the male characters. Yes, both Emilia and Desdemona die at the hands of their husbands, but it is through societys expectations of women that they are murder, as well as Iagos evil manipulation of The Moor.Desdemona dies through no fault of her own, this making her a tragic victim at the hands of Othello, as she has not committed any sin, and she is only murdered through Iago suggesting to Othello that she had been cheating on Cassio. Desdemona is also a tragic vict im as not only has she done nothing wrong, but throughout the play she is portrayed by Shakespeare as a genuinely good and pure character. Emilia is a tragic victim as ultimately she dies from knowing that Desdemonas murder was due to the actions of her husband. Finally it was the women who were tragic victims at the hands of a society where the man is judge, jury and executioner, as well as manipulating them to satisfy their selfish needs.

English for Specific Purposes

2 The development of extrasensory perception The best set schemes o mice and men Gang aft a-gley. (Robert Burns) From its early beginnings in the 1960s extrasensory perception has undergone three main physical bodys of development. It is now in a fourth phase with a fifth phase starting to emerge. We shall describe each of the quintette phases in greater detail in later chapters, but it testament provide a useful perspective to give a abbreviated summary here. It should be pointed out first of all that second sight is non a monolithic universal phenomenon.ESP has developed at different speeds in different countries, and examples of all the approaches we shall describe can be comprise operating(a) somewhere in the world at the present time. Our summary must(prenominal), therefore, be very habitual in its focus. It will be noticeable in the following overview that one area of activity has been particularly important in the development of ESP. This is the area usually known a s EST (English for Science and Technology). Swales (1985) in fact uses the development of EST to illustrate the development of ESP in general With one or two exceptionsEnglish for Science and Technology has ever set and continues to set the trend in theoretical discussion, in slipway of analysing delivery, and in the variety of actual teaching materials. We have not qualified our own illustrations to EST in this book, but we still need to acknowledge, as Swales does, the pre-eminent slur of EST in the ESP story. 1. The concept of special language charge compendium This degree took place mainly in the 1960s and early seventies and was associated in particular with the work of Peter Strevens (Haliiday, Mcintosh and Strevens, 1964), Jack Ewer (Ewer and Latorre, 1969) and derriere Swales (1971).Operating on the basic principle that the English of, say, Electrical Engineering constituted a specific point different from that of, say, Biology or of widely distributed English, t he aim of the compend was to identify the grammatical and lexical features of these registers Teaching materials so took these linguistic features as their curriculum A good example of such a syllabus is that of A Course in Basic scientific-English by Ewer and Latorre (1969) (see below p. 26). In fact, as Ewer and Latorres syllabus shows, egister analysis telled that there was very little that was distinctive in the sentence grammar of Scientific English beyond a tendency to favour particular forms such as the present simple tense, the passive voice and nominal compounds. It did not, for example, reveal any forms that were not found in General English. But we must be wary of making unfair criticism. Although there was an academic involvement in the nature of registers of English per se, the main motive behind register analyses such as Ewer and Latorres was the pedagogic one of making the ESP business line more relevant to learners needs.The aim was to produce a syllabus whic h gave high priority to the language forms students would meet in their Science studies and in turn would give low priority to forms they would not meet, Ewer and Hughes-Davies (1971), for example, compared the language of the texts their Science students had to read with the language of some widely used rail textbooks. They found that the school textbooks neglected some of the language forms commonly found in Science texts, for example, compound nouns, passives, conditionals, anomalous finites (i. e. mod-. verbs).Their conclusion was that the ESP course should, therefore, give precedence to these forms. 2. Beyond the sentence rhetorical or parley or analysis There were, as we shall see, serious flaws in the register analysis-based syllabus, but, as it happened, register analysis as a research role was rapidly overtaken by developments in the world of linguistics. Whereas in the first stage of its development, ESP had focussed on language at the sentence level, the southward pha se of development shifted attention to the level above the sentence, as ESP became closely involved with the emerging field of discourse or rhetorical analysis.The leading lights in this movement were Henry Widdowson in P

Monday, February 25, 2019

Ethical Issues- Schizophrenia

Many ethical issues can be presented when working in the medical field a few major(ip) issues ar presented in the case of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental incommode in which people whitethorn hear voices in their heads that tell them to do immoral things, which are non there. A Schizophrenic person may also sit for hours without moving or talking, and are non all told sane. This disarray is a event of genetic and environmental factors. One of the issues that are impactd with schizophrenia is telling schizoids, partial truths or deceits.Studies expect shown that when a schizoid is directly confronted, they usually do not return for discussion. As a end, some psychiatrists tell their endurings half-truths or lies such as treating perseverings and telling them the medication is for anxiety or dysphasia, this way patients receive fitted treatment. Ultimately the psychiatrist is doing what is best for the patient, but is it really okay to lie to a patient? Another issue is presented during the treatment of a schizophrenic patient, occasionally a patient will ask a psychiatrist for heir opinion on whether or not to pursue a lifelong dream they may have.When this occurs, the psychiatrist is presented with the decision of whether or not to support the patient on their dream. If the psychiatrist believes the patient is not receptive of accomplishing their goal because of their mental disorder, they top executive discourage the patient form move it because if they were to pursue it and fail, it could possibly worsen the disorder. On the other hand, the psychiatrist might support the patient in their dream, because in the situation where the patient accomplishes their goal, the greenback may improve and could result in a better tone of life.So what should the psychiatrist do in this situation, when is it okay for the psychiatrist to decide what goes on in a patients life? A third issue would be the whether or not to ask a patient dealing with this disorder if they would like to write their advance directives. Advance directives are written assent of what would happen to the patient in the occasion that they lose decisional capabilities, what type of treatment they would receive, etc.Although advance directives maybe taken as a precaution and not because anything is occurring with the patient, upon being asked for these documents a patient may be caused fear which could result in worsening of the illness. So should the psychiatrist ask a patient for the advance directives knowing it may have a negative result on their health? The involvement of family in the life of a schizophrenic could be extremely beneficial, but convincing a schizophrenic to involve their family is yet another issue.The process of persuading a mental disorder patient at some point becomes coercion, which is never morally correct because it could be considered as taking advantage of a mentally challenged person. Although coercion is never technically correct, in the long run the involvement of the family will have enormous benefits on the patient, so the psychiatrist must make a decision on if they should or shouldnt coerce the patient to involve their family. I believe that all the ethical issues presented are difficult, but the psychiatrist should incessantly keep the patients well.

Virgin Atlantic Airways Case Study

Critic eithery assess how the organisation has employed e- disdain technologies to perform its key headache processes and improve wait on levels for its customers To begin with, the online e-business model of saturated Atlantic Airways is a business to consumer as the Virgin Atlantic Airways lots flat solid just the tickets directly to customers without crack intermediaries. Virgin Atlantic Airways implements the e business technologies to perform its key business processes and improve service levels for its customers by improving second-stringer online, provide all commodious services, flight data , route, cost saving , more than flight and news program update and forward motion.Reservation Online System First of all, Virgin Atlantic Airways (2012) verbalize that the reservation online enhance newsing organisation and append sales. This is because it is convenient for passengers to microprocessor chip dates and flight. No matters where passenger live, they keister res erve online and make a payment directly to Virgin Atlantic Airways through credit cards. Secondly reservation online provide all level of services. So passengers can select the service to suit their adopt. Virgin Atlantic Airways provide services such as economy class, premium economy class as well as upper class.Convenient. B2C or Business direct to customer is quite convenient and efficient with airline business (Kotler, 2008) . This reduces the need of sell agents as intermediary. As a result of this, Virgin Atlantic Airways can sell plane ticket at a lower price. Furthermore, e-business technology can increase foreign passengers through Virgin Atlantic Airways booking trunk. This is because foreign passengers can check the route , flight data and prices to compare with other airline. However, if they visualize Virgin Atlantic Airways suit their need more , they will book directly with Virgin Atlantic Airways.Flight Data E-business technologies make a flight data more accurat e and fast due to, the system is operated by computer. To demonstrate this, if nonpareil passenger book the plane ticket the system will show the seats availability left and if one change his or her mind by cancellation the system will responds very(prenominal) quick. Route E-business technologies could perform its key business processes and improve service levels for passengers by showing the flight route and provide alternative route for passengers to select.Therefore, passengers make believe varies option to pick the most convenient route and economical route. For a long flight, sometime passengers can pick an economical flight by choosing the flight that transfer at other airport or rent couples stop. This enhance customers base and flight booking system. More Flight Virgin Atlantic Airways (2012) mentioned that online system can enhance more flight. This is due to if whatever flight or route is popular due to high take away or season factors. The system will suggests to p ossibility to increase more flight .Therefore, Virgin Atlantic Airways revenue and profit will nobble as Virgin Atlantic can serve more demand. be Saving Cost saving is one of major key triumph of Virgin Atlantic Airways (Kotler, 2008) . The e business online system can go on the cost efficaciously as there is slight need for sell agents and intermediary . Also, the e-business system can manage ticket price effectively as well. This is because if the fuel price and tax price change , the system will adjust the selling price of plane ticket instantly.E business system which is a computer system require less staffs working. Therefore, the system can save hiring cost. News update and Promotion. Virgin Atlantic website shows all news and promotion update. This is a fast way to transfer directly to passengers and it is quick because the company can just update instantly. This benefits both passengers and the Virgin Atlantic company due to passengers can compare the airways promoti on with other airways or decide to purchase the promotion that suit their need instantly.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Promote from Within and Hiring Form Outside Essay

IntroductionIn my opinion base on the case study, it is non reassert in appointing Mike Ullman, an foreigner as CEO instead of Jessica Robert, who was instrumental in turning rough the fraternity between 2005 and 2010. The causality I disagree is because promoting from inwardly brings a lot of benefits to employees and boldness. I individually be turn out promoting from in spite of appearance and I cipher that promoting from within is unimpeachably more justified than saving in an outdoorsr. interrogation shows that insider and outlander some(prenominal) has antithetic benefits and loss and it is depends on the carriageial decision. various counselling has different grassdidate towards insider and outlander. I have choose to support promoting from within in this assessment is because that the research make me believe that promoting from within toilet step-up productivity and employees satisfaction. I have provides three brawny reason to support my personal view. motility 1The first reason of promoting from within is good for morale. When the top management is decided to promote from within, the others employees atomic number 18 often rattling pleased because they think that one of their own has been promoted to a management-level position and makes them facial expression nothing is impossible. (David G. Javitch., 2005) The morale of employees forget improve when they find that e precise one of them is possible to be promoted and this usually breaking winds to increase need of employees. Since Jessica Robert was instrumental in turning around the ac caller, the others employees ordain think that it is justified to promote Jessica Robert. The others employee has witness her hard working in turning around the comp whatsoever and they do not have any objection in promoting Jessica Robert. If the guild promotes Jessica Robert, the morale of employees will emphatically boost because they think that it is possible to demote on t heir own too.When morale and motivation goes up, the productivity and the efficiency of the company will increase specially when the employees like or respect the impudently promoted individual because they ar already use to the way that work unneurotic with the saucyly promoted individual. (Charles R. Knoeber., 2001) Motivation is playing an important role within an government because in increased of motivation often leads to increased of employee satisfaction. In case, Jessica Robert has join the establishment as the COO at 2005 and she was made a turnover for the company. Her period is all seen by the others employee in the organic law and she became a very respective person in the company. If the company promotes Jessica Robert as CEO, the motivation of others employee will definitely increase because nigh of the employees argon respect her and they have been working together quite a long time thus, they are already used to the way Jessica Robert work.Second reason i s an internal quarterdidate is most likely already familiar with the useable aspects of their new job because he used to an employee in the arrangement. (DR. David G. Javitch., 2005) Jessica Robert He joined the company at 2005 and she is very familiar with all the process and the system in the particular organization and she dont have to spend times to get used to the new environment, people, and the job scope. She knows the corporate culture, the procedures, policies, processes, employees, and internal and external customers associated with the job. (DR. David G. Javitch., 2005) Therefore, by promoting she whoremonger definitely increase the effectiveness of the company because she can generally micturate the ground running. She can work more effectively than an outsider and increase the productivity. She can excessively lead the team to get hold of goals easier than an outsider because she belike already familiar with every employees ability and behavior. (Mobb. S., 2010) A final exam reason to promote from within is that the current employee is already a cognize quantity to both(prenominal) management and non-management. Both groups know the employees strengths and limitations in terms of technical skills, abilities, knowledge bases, and professional personality. (DR. David G. Javitch., 2005) Internal candidate is recognise by both group and they whitethorn find easy and feel satisfy to work together with the person who they used to familiar with. Promoting Jessica Robert is real benefits to the company because both management and non- management know her ability and strength. Her succession on turning around the company has proved her ability and she is definitely qualified to be the CEO of the company. Besides that, she is not longer requires any or as much preparation as employees from outside the company because she are familiar with at least the general workings of the channel. (G. Raheja.C., 2010)Question 2Advantages of promoting from wi thinThe first advantage of promoting from within is benefits on both sides. An organization that promotes from within has the opportunity to identify the characteristics, qualifications and skills it wants to be the suit adapted leader. (Greenwood, B., n. d) This will benefit the employees, who have a clear understanding of expectation. It is also benefits the organization because by promoting from within, it actually gives the top management a chance to adjudicate staff carefully before making a recommendation for a promotion. In the process of evaluation the employees, the top management may discover the skill and ability of each different employees and make a upgrade promotion or substitutes. (Mobb. S., 2010)The other advantage is good relationships. (Greenwood, B., n. d) They have a solid network of collegial relationships within the organization because they used to an employee of the organization. The employees are willing to mentoring by him because he probably has build up a very good relationship within them. The top management is also relieved on him because his ability and skill has been recognized. Employees who are promoted from within are more likely to have a good understanding of the organization, its chronicle and core values as well as the culture of the organization. They do not have to spend much time for extra provision and they know the way to manage the organization and the way to help organization to earn profit. (Moobs.S., 2010)Disadvantages of promoting from withinThe first disadvantage is competition among staff. Promoting from within can lead to competitiveness among staff members vying for the same position. When one person is promoted, good-for-naught feelings can result in the people left behind. (Agadoni, L., n. d) This can lead to dissatisfaction at work, poor work performance and de-motivated the employees. Some employees may have felt entitled to a promotion even if they are not qualified, simply because they have put in more time and thrust to the company. If length of service were the only criterion for promotion, people could be promoted to a job they cant perform, which could lead to them being fired and slim down the effectiveness of company.The other disadvantage is smaller pool. The top managements have few options to fill a spot when they look for promotion only within the organization. (Agadoni, L., n. d) In addition, an insider of the company mightiness not have the right skills unavoidable to perform a job above their current level. They would need training and experience to accomplish the new tasks as expected, whereas outside talent might already possess the needed skills and different kind of experience. It will definitely reduce the organizations efficiency when training is necessary for the new promote because re-training takes a lot of times and cost. (R. Knoeber. C., 2003)Advantages of manner of speaking in from outsideThe first advantage of rescue in from outside is be a ble to achieving clarity on what the situation really is right now both internal to the company and externally. Most of the times, an outsider can see things in different angle and with precisely because they have different experience and they are new in the organization. (Constance Dierickx., n. d) They sometimes bring a point of view that is clear for that very reason. This different lens and frame of reference is only why an outsider is valuable and also what most organization is smell for. The second advantage is calibration.Most of the insider of the organization who are appropriately seek to inform the leader but who do not have an fencesitter point of view and who may be stuck in routine slipway of reporting. They are often follows the leaders point of view and they do not have their own experience in certain sector. An outsider first in the organization, he may bring a pretension of different experience from having worked at different of companies in multiple countries on multiple continents as well as different industries. (Constance Dierickx., n. d) An outsider can ask questions that are different, share what he has observed and lead the members to achieve organizational goal. They can challenge their own assumptions as well as the veracity of the information they may hold dear because they have different of resources get ons in different way.Disadvantages of bringing in from outsideThe disadvantage of bringing in from outside is learning curve. It takes time to follow up to further on a new job, and learning about the corporate culture. (Lisa McQuerrey., n. d) This is especially true when the new outside manager wish to radically change the management style that previously was in place. Not only does the manager need time to be acquainted with the changes and its employees also need to come to an understanding of how the new promoted operates and what performance expectations he brings to the table.The second disadvantage functional expertis e of the outsider. Unless the top management has witnessed the outsider at work in his/her field of expertise, otherwise there is no way of knowing whether the outsiders functional expertise is meets the organizations standards. (Mayhew.R., n. d) The technical skills or clinical experience of an outsider might not fit the organizations requirement as well as the job scope. In addition, most of the organization does not take long time for employers during the recruitment and selection process and the employer should always ready to pay risk for incompetency recruitment. (Richards Brigg. B., n. d) intrusion of promoting from within on the morale of employeesThe meet of promoting from within can improve the morale of employees due to great discourse. An organization actually has galore(postnominal) levels of communication such as from management to employees, between departments, between management groups and between individual employees. To maintain morale, communication lines ne ed to remain plain-spoken and important information needs to be delivered in a seasonable fashion. (Anderson. A., n. d) According to Anderson.A, laying off employees usually has a negative impact on morale, but allowing employees that are not scheduled to be set(p) off to believe that they could damage morale even further. A communication must be build within an organization, a leader who are promoted from within is actually be able to do that because they have been worked for a long time in an organization and good relationship could be build within employees as well as management group.Impact of bringing in outside on the morale of employeesThe impact of bringing in outside is actuate the morale of employees because of the changes in management. Employees can accommodate accustomed to the practices and methods of a particular manager, and when there is a change in management that can have an effect on morale. (Anderson. A., n. d) When an outsider bringing in, he might change th e management of the organization and this will affect the morale of employees because most of them are not comfortable with the change and it may takes time for them to acquainted. (Lisa McQuerrey., n. d)ReferencingCharles R. Knoeber. (2001) CEO Succession Handicapping and the Choice between Insiders and Outsiders. Online purchasable at http//hubcap.clemson.edu/sauerr/seminar_papers/succession2.pdf Accessed 14 Jan 2013Agrawa. A. (2004) Are outsiders handicapped in CEO successions? Online Available at http//www.bama.ua.edu/aagrawal/succession.pdf Accessed 14 Jan 2013Briggs, B. (2007) Problems of recruitment in civil service case of the Nigerian civil service. African Journal of Business Management, Vol 1 (6), p. 142-153. Available at http//www.academicjournals.org/ajbm/pdf/Pdf2007/Sep/Briggs.pdf Accessed 19 Jan 2013.Mobb. S. (2010) Internal Managerial Promotions Incentives, CEO Influence,and Firm Valuation. Online Available at https//editorialexpress.com/cgi-bin/conference/download. cgi?db_name=ALEA2010&paper_id=267 Accessed 15 Jan 2013G. JAVITCH. David. (2005) Selecting the Best Manager. Online Available at http//www.entrepreneur.com/ term/78576 Accessed 15 Jan 2013Greenwood. B (n. d) The Advantages of Promotion From Within. Online Available at http//work.chron.com/advantages-promotion-within-6320.html Accessed 17 Jan 2013Laura Agadoni (n. d) business and entrepreneurship. Online Available at http//yourbusiness.azcentral.com/disadvantages-promoting-within-4019.html Accessed 17 Jan 2013Mayhew. R. (n. d) Disadvantages of hiring an outside supervisor. Online Available at http//work.chron.com/disadvantages-hiring-outside-supervisor-5593.html Accessed 20 Jan 2013Dierickx. C. (n. d) Benefits of hiring an outside consultant. Online Available at http//www.cdconsultinggrp.com/resources/articles/benefits-of-hiring-an-outside-consultant/ Accessed 20 Jan 2013Anderson. A. (n. d) What impact morale in organization? Online Available at http//smallbusiness.chron.com/impacts-m orale-organization-6.html Accessed 20 Jan 2013

Baby Development

This paper provides an in-depth savor at the findings of an Adult extension Interview (AAI) with a toddlers p arents in combination with an intricate observation of the same churl. Throughout the line of merchandise of this paper, it is interesting for the reader to compare and contrast the strong Chinese nuance at play within this family to that of their ingest heritage. The observation of the minor was naturalistic meaning there was no contact or attempt to qualify the activities by the observer and it lasted thirty-minutes with each minutes findings noned apiece on the enclosed table.The AAI consisted of eighteen questions which are intended to provide a sense of understanding of the evokes experience with their own flummox and father time when used with the observation of the child sess help oneself to offer a clearer picture of their parenting. There are three definitions of each, parents and children, which arsehole be used to categorise them. These include f or the child capture, dubious-ambivalent, and insecure-avoidant and for bads secure-autonomous, dismissing, and preoccupied.The supporting statements that categorize each of these definitions have been carefully considered in determining which rightfully defines the parents and child in this particular case. Commentary Section During the thirty-minutes that the babe, Kevin, was being naturalistically observed in his parents home, a vast majority of his activity revolved around self-stimulation with move cars with very brusque interaction with his commence who was also present.Of the three categorizations for an infantsecure, insecure-ambivalent, and insecure-avoidantI would have to say, based on the short amount of eon spent with him, that Kevin showed more signs of being a secure child. This conclusion comes from observe his activity and interactivity with his spawn in combination with things that were said and his mannerisms. The observation began with Kevins aim intro ducing three toy dog cars of differing sizes making the young boy incredibly excited.She obviously brought the toys in order to make the child happy, which shows that she is caring. Kevin was unable to verbally communicate clearly. However, the noises that he did make seemed to be joyful and very animated, loosely ya, ya. Initially, Kevin showed slight hesitation in his ability to play with the toy car and his mother, upon at a time recognizing this, got up from the sofa and selected a car to demonstrate to him a fun manner to use the toy.In doing so, to further substantiate my tonicity that he is a secure child, he made no fuss at her grabbing a toy and was perfectly happy with her showing him what to do. Some children in this situation whitethorn have thrown a tantrum feeling insecure as though the parent was going to take the toys apart or hold the activity in few way. About cardinal minutes or so into the observation Kevin begins knocking on the knock raze with the cars. His mother informs him of the elderly lady living below the apartment and how she does non like when he makes such(prenominal)(prenominal) loud noises.Ignoring the lengthy explanation he continues to knock out of lack of comprehension. His mother stands and once Kevin sees that her facial style is one of displeasure he immediately stops knocking as the visual is well-nighthing that he is able to recognize. As if the child is checking to see whether or not his mother is terribly upset, he goes to her clutching all three of the toy cars against his chest and says ma, ma. She responds with a smile and a yes, honey? He instantly giggles as he realizes that he is not in trouble still was merely scorned for his action at the time. perceive as how he went to his mother right aft(prenominal) the minor incident shows me that he is comfortable enough with her to run back to her immediately after she scolds him. Their consanguinity appears to be one of happiness and understand ing for one anothers ask and wants. Kevins mother was born and raised in Xian, which is the crown city of Shanxi province located in northwest China.When she was younger, she explains that both of her parents worked full-time, her mother as an accountant and her father for the Chinese government. She was not the only child she also had a sister who is two geezerhood her junior. She graduated from the Xian Institute of Foreign Language and came to the United States to attain her MBA when she was twenty-three years old. She describes her parents as being extremely busy byout most of her childishness as far back as she is able to remember, but she does not see it as being a problem with their relationship.She describes her mother as the kind of person she would like Kevin to think of her as when he is elder intimate, warm, casual, relaxing, and caring. Every free minute that she had available was spent with her and her sister. found upon the way that Kevin has responded to his m others discipline throughout the course of the observation, it seems as though he does not suffer from what psychologist Kagan refers to as behavioural inhibition, which often leads to worry in later years.In his research, he has acknowledged the fact that per attachment conjecture, an infant, in this case Kevin, willing become bonded to his mother or whoever provides care to him on a daily basis within the first year. It is, though, the individual differences in the secure versus insecure quality of attachments that have been observed, resulting from differences in the caregivers availability and reactivity to the infant and the degree of reciprocity between the infant and the caregiver (Shamir-Essakow, Ungerer, and Rapee, 2005).Kevins mother has vowed to take traumatizing experiences of her past and avoid putting her child through them so that he can develop into a more secure toddler and eventually adult. One of the questions asked of Kevins mother during the Adult Attachmen t Interview (AAI) was about a time that she remembers being separated from her mother, whom she state she was closest to growing up. She told me of a time when her mother went away for employment when she was almost seven years old.She and her sister waited outside everyday while their mother was away, hoping that she would return soon. Finally, when she did come back she cooked a large repast for the entire family as a way to make up for her absence. Seeing as how this is something that left a lasting impression on her, it seems that she displayed some separation anxiety while her mother was away, but since her mother returned kinda than abandoning her it is highly likely that any future trips caused her and her sister far slight stress.Knowing how her mother leaving negatively usurped her and her sister at such a young age it is probably unlikely that she will look at any requests for leaving Kevin for an extended period of time, at least until he is old enough to understand that she will be coming home. Although he does seem secure overall, he did show great affection toward his mother and it is apparent that she would be greatly missed should she leave. As far as her disciplinarian responsibilities with Kevin, she takes cues from her parents. In the interview, she stated that her parents were never threatening whether it was in a joking or serious manner.Yet, she mentioned that her confidence and self-esteem levels are humiliate than she would like and attributes that aspect of her adult life to the lack of compliments and measure received by her parents as a child. During my observation, when Kevin repeatedly knocked the cars onto the floor, his mother was rump but not condescending or threatening whatsoever. She simply gave him a look to let him know that she was not happy with his present expression and he stopped out of an obvious subconscious respect for his mothers wishes.This is an insecurity that she had as a child that she is trying not to pass down to Kevin. By communicating with him and interacting with him she is definitely not displaying characteristics of a parent who would be considered preoccupied or dismissing. In Mahlers object-relational theory of child separation-individuation, he explored this sort of relationship between parents and their children and looked further down the road to disclose the affects it would have on them in adolescence.From his work on the subject, others have determined that it is ultimately the way that an individual is able to meet how to balance closeness and distance in interpersonal relationships appears to have implications for a host of adjustment and psychosocial outcomes, including self-esteem, quality of family relationships, success in peer relationships, and level of depression and anxiety (Holmbeck and Leake, 1999). These are all aspects of developmental life that can be either negatively or positively affect at early stages in Kevins life should his mother do to a fault much to avoid a natural separation.It is difficult to balance and control actions in parenting so that a child grows up to be an independent, independent adult who is able to recognize and pass on similar traits to their children and so on. There is no doubt that a parent who is constantly dismissing their child or is clearly preoccupied a majority of the time will have negative effects on their child at some point later on in their life. This can be seen in the way that Kevins mothers parents dealt with her in certain situations. Granted, after returning from the business trip she made up for her absence in the eyes of her children, an underlying cut was perhaps made.Furthermore, the lack of compliments and compliment has obviously made an impression on her into adulthood. Young people are very perceptive, much more than adults give them credit for. Though their actions may not reveal the hurt and slight damage that is being caused, in the long run it may be apparent and t hose actions blamed after-the-fact. Kevins mother has taken these deficiencies and altered them to suit her desires as a parent. Based on her experiences, she has come to realize that her child needs as much physical contact as possible including kissing, hugging, and just being held.However, the obstruction comes in balance, if Kevin is coddled too much it may also negatively affect him later in life making him into an extremely dependent adult who constantly craves attention and lacks the self-sufficiency to handle grown up problems on his own. However, praise comes with little consequences as long as discipline is middling and consistently provided. She has come to realize that praising Kevin on a perpetual basis when he does things that she would like to see him doing leads him to continually act in such a manner in the future.In the interview she mentioned how overprotection has affected her and vows to allow Kevin to be exposed to the realities of the world around him to be tter correct him for life on his own, which is ultimately what parenting is all about. Overall, this project was an extremely ripe experience for me. It helped me to learn how insecure parents can sometimes raise an insecure child who becomes a far more secure and autonomous parent raising a secure child based on their own experiences growing up in combination with their cultural background.This is revealed as rectitude in research developed by Ainsworth that found that maternal behavior toward the infant is the critical determinant of infant attachment (Lowinger, Dimitrovsky, Strauss, and Mogilner, 1995). When he grows up, he will have a much more positive relationship with his mother than perhaps his mother has with her own. The future appears to be bright for little Kevin who has seemingly found a healthy balance between liberty and dependency.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Information Systems Essay

tuition systems are the foundation for conducting melodic line today. In many industries, survival and even existence without extensive use of IT is inconceivable, and IT plays a fine role in increasing productivity. Although reading engineering has become more of a commodity, when coupled with complemental stirs in judicature and counsel, it can offer the foundation for refreshed products, work, and ways of conducting tune that hand over theatres with a strategic advantage.3. What exactly is an instruction system? How does it work? What are its worry, organization and technology components?* Define an breeding system and describe the activities it performs. An data system is a set of interrelated components that work together to collect, cognitive operation, store, and disseminate training to jut closing making, coordination, comptroller, analysis, and visualization in an organization. In addition to supporting decision making, cultivation systems may also overhaul managers and workers analyze problems, visualize labyrinthine subjects, and create novel products.* List and describe the organisational, focussing, and technology marks of study systems. brass section The organization dimension of tuition systems involves issues such as the organizations hierarchy, functional specialties, air processes, culture, and political interest groups. Management The guidance dimension of information systems involves setting organizational strategies, allocating human and financial re initiations, creating new products and services and re-creating the organization if necessary. Technology The technology dimension consists of reckoner hardware, software, data commission technology, and networking/telecommunications technology.* Distinguish amid data and information and between information systems literacy and computer literacy. Information literacy is the ability to welcome, learn and use information. It doesnt rely on what you can reme mber but what you can locate and use. The process of culture in an information literate environment involves being able to find the information rather than memorize it. Computer literacy is the ability to use the computer. This is an judgement of how to use productivity software on the computer such as word processing, excel, and powerpoint presentation researchs. It is also having knowlege on how to use the internet, collabaration tools, and technology.4. What are complementary color assets? Why are complementary assets essential for ensuring that information systems provide veritable value for an organization? * Define complementary assets and describe their relationship to information technology. Complementary assets are those assets required to derive value from a uncomplicated investment. Firms must rely on supportive values, structures, and behavior patterns to obtain a greater value from their IT investments. Value must be added through complementary assets such as new blood processes, management behavior, organizational culture, and training.* follow the complementary social, managerial, and organizational assets required to optimize returns from information technology investments. organizational assets* Supportive culture that values efficiency and effectiveness* Appropriate communication channel model* Efficient agate line processes* Decentralized authorityManagerial assets* real senior management support for technology investment and change* Incentives for management innovation* Teamwork and collaborative work environmentsSocial assets* The Internet and telecommunications infrastructure* IT-enriched educational programs raising labor force computer literacy* Standards (both government and private sector)Chapter 21. What are business processes? How are they related to information systems? * Define business processes and describe the role they play in organizations. A business process is a logically related set of activities that define how specific business tasks are performed. dividing line processes are the ways in which organizations coordinate and work up work activities, information, and cognition to produce their valuable products or services. How well a business performs depends on how well its business processes are designed and coordinated. Well-designed business processes can be a source of competitive strength for a company if it can use the processes to innovate or perform kick downstairs than its rivals. Conversely, poorly designed or executed business processes can be a liability if they are based on outdated ways of working and impede responsiveness or efficiency. * Describe the relationship between information systems and business processes.Information systems automate manual business processes and pip an organization more efficient. Data and information are available to a wider range of decision-makers more quickly when information systems are used to change the flow of information. Tasks can be performed simultaneously rather than sequentially, speeding up the completion of business processes. Information systems can also drive new business models that perhaps wouldnt be possible without the technology.3. How do systems that consort the enterprise modify organizational performance? * Explain how enterprise applications improve organizational performance. An organization operates in an ever-increasing competitive and global environment. The successful organization focuses on the efficient execution of its processes, customer service, and speed to market. Enterprise applications provide an organization with a united view of its operations across diametric functions, levels, and business units. Enterprise applications allow an organization to efficiently exchange information among its functional areas, business units, suppliers, and customers.* Define enterprise systems, supply chain management systems, customer relationship management systems, and cognition management systems and describe their business benefits. Enterprise systems integrate the key business processes of an organization into a angiotensin converting enzyme central data repository. This makes it possible for information that was previously fragmented in different systems to be shared across the true and for different part of the business to work more closely together.Business benefits include* Information flows seamlessly throughout an organization, improving coordination, efficiency, and decision making. * Gives companies the flexibility to respond rapidly to customer requests while producing and stocking only that inventory necessary to fulfill existing orders. * Increases customer satisfaction by improving product shipments, minimizing costs, and improving a firms performance. * Improves decision making by improving the quality of information for all levels of management. That leads to split analyses of overall business performance, more accurate gross revenue and action forecasts, and higher profitability.In short, supply chain management systems help businesses better manage relationships with their suppliers. Objective of SCM Get the right amount of products from the companies source to their point of consumption with the least amount of time and with the lowest cost. SCM provides information to help suppliers, purchasing firms, distributors, and logistics companies share information about orders, production, inventory levels, and pitch of products and services so that they can source, produce, and deliver goods and services efficiently. SCM helps organizations achieve great efficiencies by automating parts of these processes or by helping organizations rethink and contour these processes. SCM is important to a business because through its efficiency it can coordinate, schedule, and control the delivery of products and services to customers. Business benefits include * Decide when and what to produce, store, and move* quick transfer orders* T rack the status of orders* Check inventory availability and monitor lizard inventory levels* Reduce inventory, transportation, and warehousing costs* Track shipments* Plan production based on actual customer demand* Rapidly communicate changes in product designCustomer relationship management systems change a business to better manage its relationships with existing and potential customers. With the development of the Web, potential customers can easily comparison shop for retail and wholesale goods and even raw materials, so treating customers better has become very important.Business benefits include* CRM systems provide information to coordinate all the business processes that aim with customers in sales, marketing, and service to optimize revenue, customer satisfaction, and customer retention. This information helps firms identify, attract, and accommodate the most profitable customers provide better service to existing customers and join on sales. * CRM systems consolidat e customer data from multiple sources and provide analytical tools for tell questions such as What is the value of a particular customer to the firm over his/her lifetime?* CRM tools integrate a businesss customer-related processes and consolidate customer information from multiple communication channels, giving the customer a consolidated view of the company. * Detailed and accurate knowledge of customers and their preferences help firms amplify the effectiveness of their marketing campaigns and provide higher-quality customer service and support.Knowledge management systems enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing and applying knowledge and expertise. These systems collect all pertinent knowledge and experience in the firm, and make it available wherever and whenever it is needful to improve business processes and management decisions. They also link the firm to away sources of knowledge.Business benefits include* KMS support processes for acquiring, sto ring, distributing, and applying knowledge, as well as processes for creating new knowledge and integrating it into the organization. * KMS include enterprise-wide systems for managing and distributing documents, graphics, and other digital knowledge objects systems for creating integrated knowledge directories of employees with special areas of expertise office systems for distributing knowledge and information and knowledge work systems to facilitate knowledge creation. * KMS use intelligent techniques that codify knowledge and experience for use by other members of the organization and tools for knowledge find that recognize patterns and important relationships in large pools of data.* Explain how intranets and extranets help firms integrate information and business processes. Because intranets and extranets share the same technology and software platforms as the Internet, they are easy and inexpensive ways for companies to increase integration and induce the flow of informati on within the company (intranets alone) and with customers and suppliers (extranets). They provide ways to reach information and store corporate policies, programs, and data. Both types of nets can be customized by users and provide a single point of access to information from several(prenominal) different systems.5. What is the role of the information systems function in a business? * Describe how the information systems function supports a business. The information systems departments is the formal organizational unit creditworthy for information technology services. The information systems department is responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that comprise the firms IT infrastructure. Compare the roles played by programmers, systems analysts, information systems managers, the chief information officeholder (CIO), chief security officer (CSO), and chief knowledge officer (CKO). * Programmers are highly trained skilful specialists who writ e the software instructions for computers. * Systems analysts constitute the principal liaisons between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization. The systems analysts job is to translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems.* Information systems managers lead teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility managers, telecommunications mangers, or database specialists. * master(prenominal) information officer (CIO) is a senior manager who oversees the use of information technology in the firm. * Chief security officer (CSO) is responsible for information systems security in the firm and has the principle responsibility for enforcing the firms information security policy. The CSO is responsible for educating and training users and IS specialists about security, keeping management aware of security threats and breakdowns, and maintaining the tools and policies chosen to implement security. * Chief kn owledge officer (CKO) helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes.